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系統識別號 U0026-3112201921374700
論文名稱(中文) 使用2007-2012年GPS連續站資料分析印尼西蘇門答臘2010年與2012年地震
論文名稱(英文) Using 2007-2012 Continuous GPS Data to Study the 2010 and 2012 Earthquakes in the Seismic Gap Area in Mentawai, West Sumatra, Indonesia
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 108
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 萬波登
研究生(英文) Bondan Galih Dewanto
學號 P66077123
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 132頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊名
口試委員-景國恩
口試委員-饒瑞鈞
中文關鍵字 none 
英文關鍵字 Continuous GPS  Crustal Deformation  2010 and 2012 Mentawai earthquakes  Coseismic Source Model  Seismic Gap Area 
學科別分類
中文摘要 none
英文摘要 After the occurrence of the October 25 2010 Mentawai tsunami earthquake on the Sunda megathrust in Indonesia, a following September 14 2012 earthquake occurred right on the east of the 2010 event with a deeper focal depth. Although the damages caused by this 2012 event was not significant, it is important to understand the seismic hazard of the Mentawai seismic gap and its relationship with the 2010 earthquake. In this study, we collected GPS observations during two weeks before and after the earthquake from 17 SuGAr stations to compute the coseismic displacements of these two earthquakes. The GPS data was processed using GAMIT/GLOBK 10.7 software. The time series of the 2007-2010 and 2010-2012 data show an exponential pattern which means that there are no interseismic phase before the 2010 and 2012 earthquakes.
The two earthquakes show similar displacement patterns, and the biggest displacements are found at BSAT, SMGY, and SLBU stations. The orizontal displacement of the coseismic phase is moving towards southwest, while the vertical displacements are upward at the Mentawai Islands and downward at the Sumatra Island. The coseismic source model has been completed using the kinematic model. From that, the energy accumulation released in 2010 and 2012 earthquakes are Mw 7.9 and Mw 6.2, respectively. These two earthquakes have filled the seismic gap area and are highly correlated.
論文目次 ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................... II
DEDICATION ..................................................................................................... III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................. IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................... V
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................ X
LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................. XI
CHAPTER ONE ..................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Background............................................................................................... 1
1.2 Research Objective and Scope ................................................................. 4
1.3 Thesis Organization. ................................................................................. 4
CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................... 6
LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................... 6
2.1 Tectonic Background................................................................................ 6
2.1.1 Sumatra Tectonic Plate ..................................................................... 6
2.1.2 Mentawai Fault Zone ........................................................................ 7
2.1.3 Accretionary Wedge in Mentawai Islands ...................................... 10
2.1.4 Sunda Block Movement ................................................................... 11
2.1.5 2007 Earthquake Coseismic Source Model .................................... 12
2.2 Global Positioning System (GPS) .......................................................... 16
2.2.1 Position Determination with GPS Satellite ..................................... 16
2.2.2 Crustal Deformation Monitoring using Continuous GPS ............... 25
2.2.3 International GNSS Service (IGS) .................................................. 28
2.2.4 Sumatran GPS Data Array (SuGAr) ............................................... 29
2.2.5 GAMIT/GLOBK .............................................................................. 30
2.3 Time-series Analysis .............................................................................. 31
2.4 Continuous GPS for Coseismic Displacement Fields ............................ 33
2.5 Least-Squares Inversion ......................................................................... 36
2.6 Elastic Dislocation Model ...................................................................... 37
CHAPTER THREE .............................................................................................. 44
GPS DATA AND PROCESSING ........................................................................ 44
3.1 Research Materials and Tools ................................................................ 44
3.1.1 Research Materials ......................................................................... 44
3.1.2 Research Tools ................................................................................ 47
3.2 Flowchart of research implementation ................................................... 47
3.3 Preparation of Research Materials and Tools ......................................... 49
3.3.1 Data Collection ............................................................................... 49
3.3.2 Ubuntu Linux Operating System Installation .................................. 49
3.3.3 NetCDF and Compiler Installation ................................................. 49
3.3.4 GAMIT/GLOBK Installation ........................................................... 50
3.3.5 MatLab and GMT software ............................................................. 52
3.4 GPS Data Processing Using GAMIT ..................................................... 53
3.4.1 Editing File...................................................................................... 53
3.4.2 Observation Data Processing Using GAMIT ................................. 54
3.4.3 GAMIT Result Analysis ................................................................... 54
3.5 Observation Data Processing Using GLOBK ........................................ 54
3.5.1 Displacement Processing ................................................................ 54
3.5.2 GLOBK Result Analysis .................................................................. 55
3.6 Coordinate Time Series .......................................................................... 55
3.7 Coseismic Source Modelling .................................................................. 56
3.8 The Optimal Fault Geometry .................................................................. 56
CHAPTER FOUR ................................................................................................ 58
TIME SERIES ANALYSIS AND COSEISMIC DISPLACEMENT .................. 58
4.1 Data Quality Control .............................................................................. 58
4.2 GAMIT Processing Results .................................................................... 61
4.2.1 2007-2010 GAMIT Result ............................................................... 61
4.2.2 GAMIT Result of October 25 2010 Earthquake .............................. 63
4.2.3 2010-2012 GAMIT Result ............................................................... 65
4.2.4 GAMIT Result of September 14 2012 Earthquake .......................... 66
4.3 Time Series Analysis .............................................................................. 68
4.3.1 2007-2010 Time Series .................................................................... 68
4.3.2 October 25 2010 Time Series .......................................................... 72
4.3.3 2010-2012 Time Series .................................................................... 75
4.3.4 September 14 2012 Time Series ...................................................... 79
4.4 Coseismic Displacements of 2010 and 2012 Earthquakes ..................... 83
4.4.1 October 25 2010 Coseismic Displacement ..................................... 83
4.4.2 September 14 2012 Coseismic Displacement ................................. 85
CHAPTER FIVE .................................................................................................. 88
COSEISMIC SOURCE MODELS OF 2010 AND 2012 EARTHQUAKES ...... 88
5.1 October 25 2010 Coseismic Source Model ............................................ 88
5.2 September 14 2012 Coseismic Source Model ........................................ 90
CHAPTER SIX .................................................................................................... 94
DISCUSSION ....................................................................................................... 94
6.1 Implication of 2007-2010 and 2010-2012 GPS time series ................... 94
6.2 Comparison of 2010 and 2012 Earthquakes ........................................... 96
6.3 Seismic Gap was filled by 2010 and 2012 Earthquake ........................ 101
6.4 Implication of the Coseismic Source Model to Subduction Tectonic Zone
………………………………………………………………………...105
CHAPTER SEVEN ............................................................................................ 108
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ................................................. 108
5.1 Conclusion ............................................................................................ 108
5.2 Recommendation .................................................................................. 109
REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 110
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