||What motivate us to walk more? The influence of self-goal setting, motivational message and monetary reward on promoting physical activity
||Department of Industrial Design
Health Behavior Change
Both motivational message and monetary reward are effective strategies for promoting people’s physical activity behavior. They are often used in different physical activity promotion programs or commercially available health promotion products. However, little is known how these two strategies combined with self-setting goal method can influence people’s physical activity behavior. To fill this gap, this study explores how these two strategies combined with self-setting goal one by one influence low active office workers’ physical activity behavior. The results show that when low active office workers were firstly intervened by self-setting goal method only, then intervened by self-setting goal plus motivational message strategy, and finally intervened by self-setting goal plus motivational message and monetary reward (called G-M-R method) increased their physical activity gradually. They also showed greater self-efficacy and competence in the end of the intervention and were willing to pursuit higher physical activity goals. G-M-R method also helped people enhance their goal commitments, which led to greater goal achievements. Moreover, this method can improve identified regulation of exercise behavior, which is positively related to behavior adherence. Low active office workers who were firstly intervened by self-setting goal method, then intervened by self-setting goal plus monetary reward strategy, and finally intervened by self-setting goal plus motivational messages and monetary rewards (called G-R-M method) also increased their physical activity gradually. This G-R-M method is also helpful for people’s self-efficacy and competence, and makes them be willing to pursue higher goals. However, this method does not affect goal commitment and identified regulation of exercise behavior. Overall, self-goal setting method combined with motivational messages and monetary rewards can successfully promote people’s physical activity. The order of combing motivational messages or monetary rewards will change the effectiveness of increasing goal commitment and identified regulation of exercise behavior.
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF FIGURES xii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background, Motivations, and Purpose 1
1.2 Research Limitations 4
1.3 Research Framework 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 The Current Physical Activity Status of Taiwanese Office Workers 6
2.1.1 The Reasons of Being Inactive 6
2.1.2 The Risks of Being Physical Inactive 7
2.2 Goal-Setting Method for Better Physical Activity 7
2.2.1 The Relationship between Goal Content and Performance 7
2.2.2 The Decision Making Process of Goal Setting 8
2.2.3 Factors that Influence Goal Commitment 9
2.3 Use Motivational Messages for Greater Physical Activity 10
2.3.1 Messages Dissemination Methods 10
2.3.2 The Motivational Effect of Message Framing 11
2.3.3 The Influence of Message Content on Behavior Promotion 13
2.4 Use Monetary Reward for Greater Physical Activity 14
2.4.1 The Importance of Using Monetary Reward for Behavior Change 14
2.4.2 The Worries of Using Monetary Reward as Behavior Intervention 15
2.5 Prediction for Physical Activity Adherence 16
2.5.1 The Relationship Between Different Motivation Types and Future Health Behaviors 16
2.5.2 Assessment of Motivation toward Physical Activity and Exercise 19
CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENT 1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 21
3.1 Participant 21
3.2 Intervention 23
3.2.1 Pedometer TANITA PD-641 23
3.2.2 Android Smartphone 24
3.2.3 Mobile Applications: Pedometer 25
184.108.40.206 Pedometer G 25
220.127.116.11 Pedometer M 28
18.104.22.168 Pedometer P 32
3.3 Study Design 35
3.4 Follow-up Measure 35
3.5 Procedure 36
3.6 Hypothesis 39
CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENT 1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 40
4.1 The Influence of Self-Setting Goal Combined with Motivational Message and Monetary Reward on Physical Activity 40
4.1.1 Method for Analyzing Walking Steps, Self-Setting Goals, and Goal Achievement Rate 40
4.1.2 Baseline of Walking Step Count 44
4.1.3 The Changes of Walking Step Count 44
4.1.4 The Changes of Self-Setting Goal and Goal Achievement Rate 47
4.1.5 Summary 50
4.2 The Influence of Self-Setting Goal Combined with Motivational Message and Monetary Reward on Exercise Regulation 51
4.2.1 Analysis Method 51
4.2.2 Examine the Scores of BREQ-2 51
4.2.3 Results and Discussion 51
4.2.4 Physical Activity Adherence 53
CHAPTER 5 EXPERIMENT 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 55
5.1 Participant 55
5.2 Intervention 57
5.2.1 Pedometer TANITA PD-641 57
5.2.2 Android Smart Phone 57
5.2.3 Mobile Applications: Pedometer 57
22.214.171.124 Pedometer G 58
126.96.36.199 Pedometer R 58
188.8.131.52 Pedometer P 62
5.3 Study Design 62
5.4 Follow-up Measure 63
5.5 Procedure 63
5.6 Hypothesis 66
CHAPTER 6 EXPERIMENT 2 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 67
6.1 The Influence of Self-Setting Goal Combined with Monetary Reward and Motivational Message on Physical Activity 67
6.1.1 Method for Analyzing Walking Steps, Self-Setting Goals, and Goal Achievement Rate 67
6.1.2 Baseline of Walking Step Counts 68
6.1.3 The Changes of Walking Step Counts 69
6.1.4 The Changes of Self-Setting Goal and Goal Achievement Rate 71
6.1.5 Summary 73
6.2 The Influence of Self-Setting Goal Combined with Monetary Reward and Motivational Message on Exercise Regulation 73
6.2.1 Analysis Method 73
6.2.2 Examine the Scores of BREQ-2 74
6.2.3 Results and Discussion 74
6.2.4 Physical Activity Adherence 76
CHAPTER 7 GENERAL DISCUSSION 77
7.1 The Influence of Rule of Earning Reward on Self-setting Goal Behavior 77
7.2 How Motivational Message, Monetary Reward and Self-Setting Goal Method Promote Physical Activity 79
7.3 The Influence of Sequence of Motivational Message and Monetary Reward on Exercise Regulation 81
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 82
8.1 Conclusion 82
8.2 Design Inspiration 82
8.3 Future Work and Suggestions 83
Appendix A Participant Screening Questionnaire 96
Appendix B 31 Motivational Messages Used in Pedometer M/P 98
Appendix B 31 Motivational Messages Used in Pedometer M/P (continue) 99
Appendix B 20 Action Tips Used in Pedometer M/P 100
Appendix C Chinese BREQ-2 101
Appendix D Participant Recruit Advertisement 102
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