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系統識別號 U0026-3108201120411700
論文名稱(中文) 戶外式清潔機器人之研發
論文名稱(英文) The Development of Outdoor Robot for Cleaning
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工程科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Engineering Science
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 王婷
研究生(英文) Ting Wang
學號 n96984317
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 70頁
口試委員 指導教授-周榮華
口試委員-王榮泰
口試委員-王宗一
中文關鍵字 戶外清潔機器人  DSP  超音波感測器 
英文關鍵字 Outdoor Robot for Cleaning  DSP  ultrasonic sensor 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文旨在於發展一台戶外型清潔機器人,其適用環境主要針對戶外一般常見地形(沙地、草地、石地…等),其清掃對象主要設定為一般落葉及小石子,或落葉大小的小型垃圾。清潔機器人的控制核心為TMS320LF2407A DSP控制晶片,負責馬達控制、感測器控制,以及超音波感測器的訊號處理;於ASUS筆記型電腦使用人機介面,透過RS-232與DSP控制晶片進行資訊傳遞,負責影像處理及路徑地圖的建立。清潔機器人的清掃方式為:利用網路攝影機拍攝環境影像,進而透過一系列的影像處理(如開運算、凸刑封包…等),進而將影像資訊建立為2D資訊地圖,並將最後的障礙物資訊轉換為格點地圖。最後,以全域覆蓋的方式進行牛耕田清掃工作,而完成清掃工作後,清潔盒將會自動清空。
英文摘要 The goal of this thesis is to develop an outdoor cleaning robot. The suitable outdoor cleaning environments for this robot are those commonly seen,such as sandlot and lawn. The fallen leaves, small crushed stone and small trash in leaf size are the main target to be cleaned. The control core of the robot is a TMSLF2407A Digital Signal Processor (DSP), which is used to control motor, sensor and the sonar sensor signal processing. The interface is build on a notebook in order to communicate with the DSP, and is used to process images and build the cleaning path. The cleaning way of the robot is to take the pictures by using a webcam first, and then the pictures are processed by a series of image process, and transferred to a 2D map. Afterwards, the information of the obstacle will be transfer to the map with grid points. Finally, the robot starts the cleaning task by using CCPP (Complete Coverage Path Planning); after finishing the cleaning task, the trash box will be cleared automatically.
論文目次 中文摘要...................................................I
Abstract .................................................II
誌謝.....................................................III
目錄......................................................IV
圖目錄...................................................VII
表目錄.....................................................X
第1章 緒論..................................................1
1.1 前言.................................................1
1.2 研究動機與目的........................................2
1.3 文獻探討..............................................2
1.3.1 感測器文獻回顧..................................2
1.3.2 路徑規劃文獻回顧.................................4
1.3.3 清潔機器人文獻回顧...............................5
1.4 研究方法..............................................6
1.5 論文架構..............................................7
第2章 機器人系統設計與系統架構................................8
2.1 清潔機器人硬體設計.....................................8
2.1.1 清潔機器人系統架構...............................8
2.1.2 驅動系統設計...................................11
2.1.3 清潔機構設計...................................13
2.1.4 感測器旋轉平台.................................17
2.2 清潔機器人控制系統介紹................................18
2.2.1 清潔機器人控制晶片..............................18
2.2.2 清潔機器人控制電路..............................20
2.3 清潔機器人硬體架構....................................22
2.3.1 鉛酸充電電池...................................22
2.3.2 直流/直流 轉換器...............................22
2.3.3 驅動系統馬達...................................24
2.3.4 其他馬達.......................................26
2.3.5 馬達驅動晶片...................................27
2.4 感測器..............................................30
2.4.1 Logitech網路攝影機.............................30
2.4.2 超音波感測器...................................31
2.4.2.1 超音波感測器原理............................32
2.4.2.2 超音波感測器應用............................33
2.5 軟體介面.............................................36
2.5.1 Borland C++ Builder 6介面.....................36
2.5.2 Code Composer Studio介面......................37
第3章 軟體系統的介紹與原理...................................38
3.1 系統流程.............................................38
3.2 清潔區塊偵測原理......................................40
3.2.1 影像光源補償...................................41
3.2.2 色彩高斯濾波...................................41
3.2.3 形態學開運算...................................41
3.2.4 連接區域標定...................................42
3.2.5 凸形封包.......................................43
3.2.6 建立2D地圖.....................................43
3.3 牛耕田路徑規劃.......................................47
第4章 實驗結果與討論........................................48
4.1 直線行進實驗.........................................48
4.2 原地轉向角度測量實驗..................................51
4.3 突入物體閃避實驗......................................52
4.4 垃圾盒底板開關實驗....................................56
4.5 刷毛清潔效果實驗......................................57
4.6 草、沙地區域清掃實驗..................................61
第5章 結論與未來展望........................................65
5.1 結論................................................65
5.2 未來展望.............................................65
參考文獻...................................................67

圖2- 1 戶外清潔機器人實體圖.................................9
圖2- 2 機器人硬體配置示意圖.................................9
圖2- 3 機器人硬體系統架構圖................................10
圖2- 4 戶外清潔機器人規格圖................................10
圖2- 5 驅動系統零組件......................................11
圖2- 6 驅動系統機構示意圖..................................12
圖2- 7 驅動系統機構實體圖..................................12
圖2- 8 基本行走機體實體圖..................................13
圖2- 9 清潔機構放置位置示意圖...............................14
圖2- 10 清潔刷加工前後實體圖................................14
圖2- 11 清潔刷帶動機構圖....................................15
圖2- 12 清潔盒實體圖.......................................15
圖2- 13 清潔盒馬達控制開關示意圖.............................16
圖2- 14 清潔盒底板開啟流程圖................................16
圖2- 15 感測器轉動平台組合實體圖.............................17
圖2- 16 TMS320LF2407A接腳圖................................20
圖2- 17 DSK實驗板實體圖....................................21
圖2- 18 電路分佈位置圖......................................21
圖2- 19 鉛酸充電電池.......................................22
圖2- 20 SKA15A-05 直流/直流 轉換器..........................23
圖2- 21 電壓轉換電路圖......................................23
圖2- 22 直流有刷馬達.......................................24
圖2- 23 HN-35GBD-1345T強扭力直流減速馬達....................26
圖2- 24 KH42HM2B021步進馬達................................27
圖2- 25 TA7291AP外觀圖.....................................28
圖2- 26 TA7291AP內部電路圖.................................28
圖2- 27 TLP250外觀圖.......................................29
圖2- 28 光耦合器電壓放大電路圖...............................29
圖2- 29 Logitech Quickcam Sphere MP攝影機..................30
圖2- 30 Polaroid 6500超音波模組............................31
圖2- 31 超音波傳遞形狀圖....................................32
圖2- 32 Polaroid 6500電路結構圖............................34
圖2- 33 Polaroid 6500單一回應模式時序圖.....................35
圖2- 34 Borland C++ Builder6使用介面.......................36
圖2- 35 Code Composer Studio使用介面.......................37
圖3- 1 清潔機器人系統流程圖................................39
圖3- 2 網路攝影機感測範圍示意圖.............................40
圖3- 3 地圖建立流程圖......................................40
圖3- 4 影像拍攝示意圖......................................43
圖3- 5 影像測距模型.......................................44
圖3- 6 障礙物測距模型......................................45
圖3- 7 寬度測量影像模型....................................46
圖3- 8 牛耕田路徑規劃模擬結果...............................47
圖4- 1 直線行走實驗流程圖..................................48
圖4- 2 突入物體閃避實驗流程圖...............................53
圖4- 3 垃圾盒底板開關實驗流程圖.............................56
圖4- 4 刷毛實體密度及擺放位置圖.............................57
圖4- 5 石地清掃效果實驗流程圖...............................58
圖4- 6 沙地清掃效果實驗流程圖...............................59
圖4- 7 沙地清掃後地面圖....................................60
圖4- 8 草、沙地區域清掃實驗流程圖...........................61

表2- 1 TMS320LF2407A DSP規格表.............................19
表2- 2 直流有刷馬達規格.....................................24
表2- 3 MaxonMotor 141095直流有刷馬達規格....................25
表2- 4 HN-35GBD-1345T規格.................................26
表2- 5 KH42HM2B021步進馬達規格.............................27
表2- 6 TA7291AP動作真值表..................................29
表2- 7 Logitech Quickcam Sphere MP攝影機技術規格............30
表2- 8 Polaroid 6500超音波模組規格..........................31
表2- 9 Polaroid 6500單一回應模式腳位表......................34
表4- 1 轉向角度測試數據表...................................51

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