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系統識別號 U0026-3107202014161200
論文名稱(中文) 波浪與近岸結構物交互作用之研究
論文名稱(英文) Study on the interaction between water waves and structures
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 張育誠
研究生(英文) Yu-Cheng Chang
學號 N88021105
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 193頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃清哲
口試委員-蕭士俊
口試委員-董東璟
口試委員-黃良雄
口試委員-謝志敏
中文關鍵字 作業化觀測與預測  波浪溯升經驗公式  三維數值波浪模式  黏性流場  多重網格系統  GPU 平行運算 
英文關鍵字 operational monitoring and forecasting  wave run-up empirical formulas  3-D numerical wave model  viscous flow  multi-block grid system  GPU-parallel computing 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文旨在探討波浪通過近岸結構物之流場變化,以及波浪於堤面溯升高度之預測。為提供近岸地區易淹之預警,本研究開發一套作業化海堤堤面溯升量測系統與堤面溯升預測模式。應用作業化數值波浪模式 (WWIII及 POM) 計算得外海預測波浪與水位資料,再透過美國陸軍工兵團所制定之海岸工程手冊 (CEM, 2011) 及歐盟越波手冊 (EurOtop, 2018) 之設計準則,推估波浪於實際海堤堤面之最大溯升高。為驗證堤面波浪溯升預測模式的準確性,在 2013 至 2016 年間,本研究於台灣西南沿海之三座海堤建置堤面溯升量測系統。將模式估算之溯升高度與現地量測之波浪溯升資料進行比對,比對結果相當良好,說明本研究所發展之溯升觀測與預測系統的適用性。此外,採用系集方法改善颱風期間不確定性之溯升預測值,溯升高度之預測值最終以帶狀方式呈現,包含溯升預測之最大值和最小值。經本研究驗證及率定後之溯升預測模式可提供沿岸區域於颱風期間,波浪越堤溢淹之提前預警。
此外,本文亦發展二維近岸水理數值模式,模擬波浪侵襲實際海堤時,堤前波、流場演變情形。為適切反應現況海堤包含堤面拋石等具透水性之堤面保護工的消波效果,模式乃求解二維非穩態體積平均-雷諾平均方程式 (VARANS) 與紊流傳輸模式 ( ),模擬純水體區域與孔隙介質區域的流體運動情形。並採用質點等位函數法模擬波浪碎波等複雜波場演變。在固流耦合問題計算方面,採用流固耦合新興技術 (Huang et al., 2015),於卡式座標系統中,計算不規則固體邊界附近的流體運動情形。藉由數值模擬結果與實驗數據 (Losada et al., 1997) 進行比對,驗證本研究開發數值模式之準確性。確立模式之準確性後,將其應用於模擬潭美和鳳凰颱風期間,颱風波浪於台灣西南海岸曾文海埔地海堤,堤前波、流場及堤面溯升高度之演變情形。將模式計算之最大堤面溯升高度與現地量測之波浪溯升資料進行比對,其比對結果相當吻合,展示本數值模式預估波浪溯升高度的準確性。
本研究另應用多重網格系統發展三維數值水槽,並應用於波浪與結構物交互作用之數值模擬。為適切模擬黏性流體之運動,本研究求解三維時變 Navier-Stokes 方程式,搭配大渦模擬之紊流模式 (LES)。為加速三維模式的大量計算,本模式採用圖形處理器 (GPU) 高速平行計算技術,達到低成本、高效率計算需求。為確立本模式之準確性,本研究進行數值驗證,包括三維空穴黏性流場模擬及孤立波通過圓柱測試等,驗證結果皆令人滿意。在確立模式準確性後,本文模擬不同波浪條件及基樁直徑下,波浪通過風力發電機單一基樁時的波流場及基樁受力情形。
英文摘要 This dissertation presents numerical models for investigating the evolution of free surface waves and the viscous flow fields near various coastal structures and a model for forecasting the wave run-up height on a seawall. To provide early warning of possible coastal flooding, a wave run-up monitoring system and a model for forecasting the wave run-up height on real seawall were developed in present study. The Princeton Ocean Model and WAVEWATCH III were used to predict the water levels and ocean waves, respectively. The empirical formulas recommended in the Coastal Engineering Manual (2011) and EurOtop (2018) were adopted to estimate the run-up height. The wave run-up monitoring system was set up at three seawalls along the southwestern coast of Taiwan from 2013 to 2016. Consistency between the forecasted and measured wave run-up heights during typhoon periods demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for monitoring and forecasting wave run-up heights. Furthermore, the multi-model ensemble approach was adopted to improve the unsatisfactory run-up forecasting performance during typhoon periods, and the forecasted run-up heights were eventually presented as a band with upper and lower limits as opposed to single values. The forecast results can be used to provide advance warning of possible wave overtopping and associated coastal flooding during typhoon periods.
In addition to using available empirical formulas to forecast wave run-up on a real seawall, a two-dimensional numerical wave tank was developed to simulate the wave and flow fields near a real seawall. Permeable structures on the real seawalls such as rubble-mounds revetment and armor blocks were considered. A two-dimensional Volume-Averaged Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equation (VARANS) and turbulence model were solved for simulating the flow characteristics inside and outside the porous media. Particle level set method was used to capture the evolution of the complex free surface. An innovative solid-fluid coupling method (Huang et al., 2015) was employed to mimic the solid-fluid interaction on fixed Cartesian grids. The accuracy of this numerical model was verified by comparing the numerical results with the experimental data (Losada et al., 1997). After having verified the accuracy of the numerical model, the model was applied to simulate the flow field and wave run-up on Tsen-Wen seawall in the southwestern Taiwan during typhoons Kalmaegi and Fung-Wong. The numerical results for maximum wave run-up height on the seawall were compared with the data obtained by in-situ measurements. The comparisons revealed that the present numerical results were consistent with the observed values.
Finally, a three-dimensional numerical wave model based on a multi-block Cartesian grid system (English et al., 2013) was developed to investigate the interaction between water waves and offshore structures. The model solves three-dimensional spatially averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) was applied to reveal the behavior of the associated turbulent flows. In order to reduce the computational time, the proposed 3-D numerical model was established in a GPU-based parallel computing environment. The proposed numerical model was applied to simulate the 3-D lid-driven cavity flow and the wave fields induced by a solitary wave past a vertical circular cylinder. The good agreement of the numerical results with available numerical results and experimental data verifies the accuracy of the proposed 3-D numerical model. The 3-D numerical model was then applied to simulate the wave propagation over an offshore mono-pile structure.
論文目次 Abstract i
摘要 iii
誌謝 v
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables x
List of Figures xi
Notation xxi
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Literature review 2
1.2.1 Experimental studies on wave run-up and empirical formulas of wave run-up 3
1.2.2 Numerical simulation of 2-D wave run-up on a real seawall 8
1.2.3 Numerical simulation of 3D wave motion 13
1.2.4 Grid system of numerical model 16
1.3 Objectives and overview of the dissertation 18
Chapter 2. Governing Equations and Boundary Condition
2.1 Governing Equations 21
2.1.1 Volume-Averaged Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations 22
2.1.2 Large Eddy Simulation 26
2.2 Boundary Conditions 27
2.2.1 The kinematic condition on the free surface 27
2.2.2 The dynamic condition on the free surface 28
2.2.3 The upstream boundary conditions 29
2.2.4 The fixed boundary condition 29
Chapter 3. Numerical Methods
3.1 Staggered Grid System 30
3.2 Finite-Analytic Method 31
3.3 Level Set Method 36
3.4 Particle Level Set Method 38
3.5 Treatment of the Free Surface Boundary 40
3.5.1 Advancing of level set function 40
3.5.2 Re-Distancing Procedure 42
3.6 Solid-Fluid Coupling 44
3.6.1 Treatment of solid boundary 44
3.6.2 Innovative boundary method 46
3.7 Projection Method 52
3.7.1 Velocity-pressure coupling in fluid region 52
3.7.2 Velocity-pressure coupling near the fluid-solid interface 53
3.8 The Solution Procedure 56
Chapter 4. Operational Monitoring and Forecasting of Wave Run-up on Seawalls
4.1 Wave Run-up Monitoring System on a Seawall 58
4.2 Operational Forecasting of Wave Run-up on the Seawall 64
4.2.1 Prediction of water levels and ocean waves 65
4.2.2 Wave transformation from the offshore to the toe of the seawall 66
4.2.3 Empirical formulas for estimating wave run-up heights 67
4.2.4 Estimation the ratio of to 75
4.3 Comparison of Forecasting Results and Monitoring Data 77
4.3.1 Run-up heights on the Tsen-Wen seawall during typhoons Trami and Usagi in 2013 79
4.3.2 Run-up heights on the Chi-Gu and Mi-Tou seawall during typhoon Soudelor in 2015 90
4.3.3 Run-up heights on the Tsen-Wen seawall during typhoons Meranti and Malakas in 2016 101
4.3.4 Inaccuracies of the wave run-up forecasting model 107
4.4 Concluding Remarks 109
Chapter 5. Numerical Implementation for a 2-D VARANS Model
5.1 Verification of the 2-D Numerical Wave Model 110
5.2 Incident Wave Conditions 115
5.3 Simulating wave run-up and overtopping on real seawalls 116
5.4 Concluding Remarks 137
Chapter 6. Development of a Three-dimensional Numerical Wave Model Based on a Multi-Block Grid System
6.1 Multi-Block Cartesian Grid System 138
6.2 Parallel Computing Environment 143
6.3 Verification of the 3-D Numerical Wave Model 148
6.3.1 3-D Lid-Driven Cavity Flows 148
6.3.2 Evolution of Level Set Function 150
6.3.3 Solitary Wave Pass a Vertical Circular Cylinder 153
6.4 Simulating interaction of water waves and offshore structures 164
6.5 Concluding Remarks 175
Chapter 7. Conclusions and Suggestions 176
7.1 Summary 176
7.1.1 Operational Monitoring and Forecasting of Wave Run-up on Seawalls 177
7.1.2 Simulating wave run-up on real seawalls 178
7.1.3 Simulating interaction of waves and offshore structures 179
7.2 Recommendations for future work 180
References 182
Vita 192
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