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系統識別號 U0026-3107201916175600
論文名稱(中文) 應用WRF/Fluent數值模擬於蘭嶼島的大氣紊流分析
論文名稱(英文) Application of WRF/Fluent coupling to the analysis of atmospheric turbulence around the Orchid Island
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 夏屏文
研究生(英文) Pingdwende Loucmane Sawadogo
學號 P46067108
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 132頁
口試委員 指導教授-苗君易
口試委員-呂宗行
口試委員-徐子圭
口試委員-蔡原祥
中文關鍵字 none 
英文關鍵字 WRF/Fluent coupling  CFD  Flow over complex terrain  Turbulence Modelling 
學科別分類
中文摘要 none
英文摘要 There is an increasing interest predominantly away from coast. Thus, it is necessary to accurately model and simulate wind flow over complex terrain for forecasting and optimizing wind energy production.
Simulating the wind flows using the real wind conditions over the wind farm is highly recommended to investigate on the atmospheric boundary layer. The real ABL contains several characteristics that have not been considered in this research such as flow stratification based on varying weather conditions. The effects of buoyancy which is neglected in this research can be included in any future work which makes the modeling flows more challenging as the effects on the atmosphere changes rapidly. The aim of this research is to simulate and analyze the wind flow characteristics around a complex terrain, the Orchid Island in Taiwan, using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equation (RANS) which are prominent when considering the wind energy, air and maritime transportation. The mesh independency has been evaluated first, then a uniform constant boundary conditions has been applied to determine the suitable 2-equation turbulence model between (k-ω SST, k-ε EWT, k-ω). After selecting k-ω SST, the 2-equation turbulence model has used to run a simulation over the four directions of the domain. WRF has been coupled with FLUENT using a surface B spline interpolation and using the 2-equation turbulence model (k-ω SST) to evaluate the turbulent flows over complex terrains using under real atmospheric conditions. From the results, the impact of the terrain and canopy terrain on the flow near the import could be observed. The results also showed that the current WRF/Fluent coupling has the potential to predict wind speed acceptably well when the inlet flow direction is less complex and under low wind speed. Additionally, more than 50 % reduction in error with WRF/Fluent coupling compared to WRF alone is achieved and a maximum error of about 20% between observed data and WRF/Fluent coupling using B spline surface interpolation is achieved.
Finally, the development of the turbulence generated by wind coming from the most complex domain can create challenges for a pilot trying to land an aircraft at the airport.
論文目次 Abstract i
Acknowledgements iii
Content v
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xii
Nomenclature xvi
Chapter I Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Selecting an Approach 2
1.2.1 Historic Wind Flow Modeling 2
1.2.2 CFD for Modeling Wind Flow 6
1.2.3 Modeling Turbulence within the RANS Approach 9
1.2.4 Coupling Method 11
1.3 Objective 12
1.4 Contributions 13
Chapter II Atmospheric Boundary Layer 14
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Governing Equations 16
2.2.1 Coriolis Effect 17
2.3 Velocity Flow Profiles 19
2.3.1 Log Law 19
2.4 Wall Functions 20
2.5 Roughness Model 22
2.5.1 Roughness Length 22
Chapter III Numerical Modeling 24
3.1 Introduction 24
3.1.1 Linear Models 24
3.1.2 Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equation (RANS) 25
3.1.3 Large eddy simulations(LES) 25
3.1.4 Direct numerical simulations(DNS) 26
3.2 Governing Equation 26
3.2.1 Filtered Navier-Stokes Equation 27
3.2.2 Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations 27
3.3 Turbulence Modeling 28
3.3.1 Turbulence closure methods 28
3.3.2 Boussinesq Approximation 29
3.3.3 K-epsilon (K-ε) realizable Enhanced Wall Treatment (EWT) model 30
3.3.4 K-omega (K-ω) model 31
3.3.5 K-omega (K-ω) Shear stress transport (SST) model 33
3.3.6 Summary of turbulence models 34
3.4 Discretization schemes 34
3.4.1 Types of differencing schemes 35
3.4.1.1 Conservation 35
3.4.1.2 Boundedness 36
3.4.1.3 Transportiveness 36
3.4.1.4 Accuracy 37
3.4.2 Central differencing scheme 37
3.4.3 Upwind differencing scheme 38
3.4.3.1 First order upwind 39
3.4.3.2 Second order upwind 39
3.4.4 Hybrid differencing scheme 40
Chapter IV Weather Forecasting and Research(WRF) Model 41
4.1 WRF model description 41
4.2 WRF software 41
4.3 WRF Preprocessing System (WPS) 43
Chapter V Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) Modeling 46
5.1 Introduction 46
5.1.1 ANSYS-Fluent 47
5.2 Methodology 48
5.2.1 Pre-processing 49
5.2.2 Solver and post-processing 50
5.3 Meshing 51
5.3.1 Meshing quality 52
5.3.2 Height of first mesh cell 53
5.3.3 Mesh cell height in atmospheric flows 54
5.3.4 Convergence and evolution factors 55
5.3.5 Mesh Independency 56
5.4 Fluent solvers 56
5.4.1 Pressure based solver 57
5.4.2 Density based solver 58
5.4.3 SIMPLE algorithm for decoupling pressure and velocity 59
5.5 Interpolation Method 60
5.5.1 B Spline Interpolation Method 60
5.6 Boundary Conditions 62
5.6.1 Inlet condition 62
5.6.2 Pressure Outlet condition 63
5.6.3 Wall condition 63
5.6.4 Symmetry condition 64
5.7 User defined functions(UDFs) 64
5.8 Solution initialization 65
5.8.1 Residual Target 67
5.8.2 Under-Relaxation Factor 68
Chapter VI Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain 69
6.1 Introduction 69
6.1.1 Orchid Island description 69
6.2 Numerical setup 70
6.2.1 Computational domain 70
6.2.2 Numerical setup 71
6.2.3 Boundary conditions 73
Chapter VII Results and Discussion 76
7.1 Domain 76
7.2 Mesh Independency 81
7.2.1 Results 81
7.2.2 Discussion 82
7.3 Turbulence Model Selection 83
7.3.1 Results 83
7.3.2 Discussion 85
7.4 Impact of the flow direction using K-ω SST with log inlet velocity 86
7.4.1 Results 86
7.4.2 Discussion 88
7.5 WRF/Fluent Coupling 91
7.5.1 Results 91
7.5.2 Discussion 96
7. 6 Validation 97
7.6.1 Results 97
7.6.2 Discussion 99
7. 7 Crosswind effect 100
7. 7.1 Results 100
7. 7.2 Discussion 102
Chapter VIII Conclusion and Future Work 104
8.1 Conclusion 104
8.2 Future work 105
References 108
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