||The Study of Process Development for Renewable Aviation Fuel
||Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics
Along with the impact of global environmental problem on humans, the world is developing a new fuels to completely replace the fossil fuels. Europe and United States plan to implement a carbon emission regulations for air transport by 2020, therefore developing an aviation fuels that meet the regulations has become the researching focus in each country. Currently, the trend of research for producing aviation fuels was hydro-processing of biomass and the production was called hydro-processed renewable jet (HRJ), the biomass can be liquid or solid. In the process of HRJ, the liquid biomass was converted to alkane through hydro-deoxygenation, then a product which meets the specification of aviation fuel was obtained by hydro-isomerization and hydro-cracking. In addition, the solid biomass needs to be pretreated through fast pyrolysis and obtaining the pyrolytic oil (bio-oil). The bio-oil was converted to HRJ by a method as mentioned above. In this study, producing HRJ from the liquid and solid biomass were mainly discussed. Choosing palm oil to represent the liquid biomass and using NiMo-S/Al2O3 as catalyst in hydro-deoxygenation to obtain the alkanes. The Miscanthus was selected to represent the solid biomass, the Miscanthus was converted to bio-oil through fast pyrolysis and obtaining the alkanes through hydro-deoxygenation with Pd/AC catalyst. Then the alkanes were hydro-isomerized and cracked by nickel-base catalyst and studying the various compositions of HRJ with different reaction conditions.
List of Tables VII
List of Figures VIII
Chapter I 1
Chapter II 4
2.1 Materials 4
2.1.1 The feedstock from liquid biomass 4
2.1.2 The feedstock from solid biomass 4
2.1.3 The hydrogenation 5
2.2 Experimental setup 5
2.3 Experimental procedure 9
2.4 Catalyst Characterization 11
2.5 Product analysis 11
Chapter III 13
Results and Discussion 13
3.1. Catalyst characterization 13
3.2 Glyceride-based oil 15
3.2.1 Distribution of carbon number and isomer to normal alkane ratio (I-to-N) at various parameter 15
3.2.1 (a) Effect of temperature on the distribution of carbon number and the I-to-N ratio 15
3.2.1 (b) Various carbon number with different pressure. 17
3.2.1 (c) Distribution of carbon number at various LHSV. 20
3.2.2 The content of aromatics at various parameter 22
3.2.3 The spectrum of gas chromatography and physical property of the product 24
3.3 Bio-oil 27
3.3.1 Gas chromatography spectrum of crude bio-oil, HDO-bio-oil, and upgrade-bio-oil. 27
3.3.1 (a) Crude bio-oil 27
3.3.1 (b) Hydro-deoxygenation of crude bio-oil. 29
3.3.1 (c) Hydro-isomerization and cracking HDO-bio-oil. 32
3.3.2 Components of gas products after hydro-isomerization and cracking HDO-bio-oil. 34
3.3.3 Components of liquid product after hydro-isomerization and cracking HDO-bio-oil. 36
Chapter IV 38
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