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系統識別號 U0026-3107201516034900
論文名稱(中文) 台灣棒球投手肩關節內旋活動度缺損之生物力學分析
論文名稱(英文) Biomechanical Analysis of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit in Taiwan Baseball Pitchers
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工程科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Engineering Science
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 吳竑建
研究生(英文) Hung-Chien Wu
學號 N96021266
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 140頁
口試委員 指導教授-王榮泰
共同指導教授-周有禮
共同指導教授-周伯禧
口試委員-林槐庭
中文關鍵字 棒球  投手  投球  直球  肩關節  肘關節  關節活動度  盂肱關節內旋活動度缺損  GIRD  運動學  動力學    運動傷害 
英文關鍵字 pitcher  range of motion  shoulder internal rotation deficit  GIRD  biomechanics 
學科別分類
中文摘要 前言:
過去有許多文獻已經證實投手慣用側的盂肱關節外旋活動度大於非慣用側外旋活動度,但慣用側的盂肱關節內旋活動度卻會小於非慣用側。本研究將慣用手的盂肱關節內旋活動度小於非慣用手盂肱關節內旋活動度達20度以上的現象定義為盂肱關節內旋活動度缺損 (Glenohumerl internal rotation deficit, GIRD),此種症狀可能改變投球運動模式的動力鏈能量傳遞,進而增加棒球選手肘關節疼痛與受傷的機會。
目的:
探討台灣患有GIRD之症狀的投手與正常的投手,在投擲直球過程中的運動學、動力學和功參數差異,進一步了解盂肱關節內旋活動度缺損對於過肩運動選手所造成的影響,並同步建立台灣戶外棒球投手投球生物力學資料庫。
研究方法:
本研究受測者為兩個族群,分別為十位患有GIRD之症狀的投手,十位Normal族群的投手。於戶外真實投手丘,使用頻率300fps的三維動作分析系統擷取過肩投球動作過程,分析其運動、動力學和功參數。投球內容為直球。統計方法用重複測量變異數分析,比較兩族群間同球種差異。設定p<0.05為顯著差異。
結果:
在關節角度的比較上,GIRD族群和Normal族群族內的肩關節內旋角度和肩關節外旋角度皆達統計上的顯著差異。
GIRD族群與Normal族群投擲直球的分析結果,81項運動學參數中,有7項達到統計上的顯著差異。33項動力學參數中,有5項達到統計上的顯著差異。16項功參數中,有2項達到統計上的顯著差異。
肌力方面,GIRD族群慣用手與非慣用手的肌力衰退率比較結果皆未達統計上的顯著差異。兩族群在投球前後的肌力衰退率比較結果也未達統計上的顯著差異。
結論:
GIRD族群在投球機制的表現上,在球離手時肩關節的三個運動學參數中有兩個達統計上的差異,進而影響了投手的控球表現。另外,GIRD族群呈現較少利用上軀幹的轉動,造成過大的負荷施加於肩、肘關節中。
GIRD族群在傷害機轉的表現上,幾項與傷害有關的關節受力參數都大於Normal族群,讓GIRD族群發生運動傷害的風險增大許多。
GIRD族群在投擲運動表現上,球速是有較快的趨勢,在手臂後拉時期和手臂加速時期所做的功也大於Normal族群,但也因為這些高強度能量的產生,會讓GIRD族群的選手更容易造成投擲上的傷害。
因此,建議GIRD族群需多加強肩、肘關節的肌群,並伴隨著核心肌群的訓練,減少投擲時手臂的負擔,以避免投球後造成傷害。
英文摘要 SUMMARY

Previous studies have documented changes in range of motion in the dominant shoulder of the overhand throwing athlete, and this change may increase the risk of injury. This study conducted medical examinations and motion analyses of throwing movements. To investigate the relationship between GIRD and throwing motion, and compare the difference between GIRD and without GIRD pitchers from biomechanical perspective. Twenty baseball pitchers from the university and high school were recruited pitched off an outdoor mound during 3-dimensional motion analysis to measure whole body kinematics at 300 Hz.
Pitchers were defined as GIRD group if their throwing shoulders displayed a 200 or more loss of IR compared with their nonthrowing shoulders. The examinations showed that the shoulder horizontal abduction angle and shoulder external rotation angle were significantly different at the instant of ball release between two groups. This phenomenon changed the pitching mechanism, affecting the shoulder positon at the instant of ball release. Moreover, this study revealed that GIRD groups presented the smaller torso rotation angle in the pitching process. Not properly using the transfer of momentum within the kinetic chain let the upper arm bear excessive load. On the other hand, shoulder inferior force, shoulder internal rotation torque, elbow medial force, and elbow varus torque were significantly different between the two groups. Pitchers with a deficit had an increased risk for shoulder and elbow injury.
論文目次 目錄
摘要.....I
Extended Abstract.....IV
致謝.....VIII
目錄......X
內文目錄.....XI
表目錄....XVI
圖目錄.....XVIII
符號......XXI

內文目錄
第一章 緒論.....1
 1.1前言....1
 1.2文獻回顧....6
  1.2.1過肩投球之動作分期...7
  1.2.2投球過程中使用的主要肌群...11
  1.2.3直球的生物力學相關研究...14
 1.3研究動機....22
 1.4研究目的....23
1.5研究假設....24
第二章 理論與分析方法...25
 2.1 運動學與動力學之理論方法....25
 2.2實驗假設....28
 2.3定義反光球位置....29
  2.3.1靜態與動態資料描述...32
  2.3.2關節中心.....33
  2.3.3座標系的訂定...37
 2.4生物力學模式在空間中運動的描述與分析..44
  2.4.1旋轉矩陣與關節夾角...46
  2.4.2角速度與角加速度之計算...49
  2.4.3肢段作用力之計算...51
  2.4.4肢段作用力矩之計算...52
  2.4.5肢段做功之計算...53
 2.5運動學與動力學的流程....54
  2.5.1運動學計算流程....54
  2.5.2動力學計算流程....54
 2.6運動學與動力學的方向定義....57
  2.6.1運動學方向定義...57
  2.6.2動力學方向定義....60第三章 研究方法.....61
 3.1 實驗設備....61
  3.1.1 硬體設備.....61
  3.1.2 軟體設備.....63
 3.2 研究對象....64
  3.2.1 受測者資料.....64
 3.3實驗設備架設....66
 3.4 實驗流程....67
  3.4.1 實驗問卷調查...69
  3.4.2 實驗空間校正...69
  3.4.3 暖身練習.....70
  3.4.4 肩及肘關節活動角度量測...71
  3.4.5 手持式肌力量測...74
3.4.6 投球動作分析...77
 3.5 資料處理....80
 3.6 統計方法....81
3.7 標準化方法....81
第四章 研究結果.....82
4.1 球速、投球數量、自覺量表統計....82
4.2 慣用手和非慣用手關節活動度比較結果..83
4.2.1 GIRD族群之慣用手與非慣用手比較結果...83
4.2.2 Normal族群之慣用手與非慣用手比較結果...83
4.2.3 GIRD族群與Normal族群之關節活動度比較結果.83
4.2.4 GIRD族群與Normal族群之內旋角度缺損比較結果.83
4.3 投球運動學………………………………..87
4.3.1 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投擲直球比較結果.87
4.4 軀幹轉向前方時間、最大肩關節外旋角度及出現時間…………..94
4.4.1 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投擲直球比較結果.94
4.5 投球動力學………………………………..96
4.5.1 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投擲直球比較結果.96
4.5.2 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手最大動力學參數出現時期.98
4.6 投球動力學-做功….……………………..104
4.6.1 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投擲直球比較結果.104
4.7肌力………………………………...106
4.7.1 GIRD群投手肌力衰退率量測結果...106
4.7.2 Normal群投手肌力衰退率量測結果...106
4.7.3 GIRD群投手與 Normal群投手肌力衰退率比較結果..106
第五章 討論.....111
 5.1關節角度、投球數量、自覺量表統計...111
5.2軀幹轉向前方時間、最大肩關節外旋角度及出現時間探討.112
5.2.1 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投擲直球之探討.112
5.3 投球過程經歷時間....113
5.3.1 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投擲經歷時間之探討.113
5.4假設一:GIRD族群的肩關節適應性會改變投手的投球機制..114
5.4.1 投球機制……………………………………………….114
5.4.2 投球機制之探討-運動學…………………….……….115
5.5假設二:GIRD族群承受較大的負荷進而導致傷害的發生…..118
5.5.1 運動傷害機轉之探討-動力學…………………….…….118
5.6假設三:GIRD族群的投手球速較快,但控球能力較差…..122
5.6.1 運動表現之探討…………….…………………….…….122
5.7肌力……………………………………………………….…..125
5.7.1 投球後肌力衰退之探討……………….………….….125
第六章 結論與未來展望...127
6.1結論….....127
6.2未來展望與研究限制…...129
參考文獻.....130
【附錄A】動作分析基本資料...135
【附錄B】受測者同意書...136
【附錄C】自覺量表(Borg’s RPE) ...140

表目錄
表1-1文獻探討上肩投手投擲直球於前導腳著地時之運動學..15
表1-2文獻探討上肩投手投擲直球於手臂後拉時期之運動學..16
表1-3文獻探討上肩投手投擲直球於手臂加速時期之運動學..17
表1-4文獻探討上肩投手投擲直球於球離手之運動學..18
表1-5文獻探討上肩投手投擲直球於手臂後拉時期之動力學..19
表1-6文獻探討上肩投手投擲直球於手臂加速時期之動力學..20
表1-7文獻探討上肩投手投擲直球於手臂減速時期之動力學..21
表3-1 GIRD群投手受測者基本資料...64
表3-2 Normal群投手受測者基本資料....65
表4-1 GIRD群投手和Normal群投手之球速比較...82
表4-2 GIRD群投手之關節活動度………………...84
表4-3 Normal群投手之關節活動度………….…...85
表4-4 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手之慣用手關節活動度比較……….86
表4-5 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手之慣用手內旋角度缺損比較….86
表4-6 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投擲直球的運動學參數比較….90
表4-7 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投擲直球的最大肩關節外旋角度及軀幹轉向前方時間的比較……………………………………………….95
表4-8 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投擲直球的動力學參數比較….100
表4-9 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投擲直球的功參數比較……..105
表4-10 GIRD群投手投球前後慣用手與非慣用手衰退率比較…….107
表4-11 Normal群投手投球前後慣用手與非慣用手衰退率比較…..108
表4-12 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投球前後慣用手衰退率比較….109


圖目錄
圖1-1-1過肩投球之動作分期(簡圖)....8
圖1-1-2過肩投球之動作分期(三段圖)....9
圖1-1-3過肩投球之動作分期(長圖)....10
圖1-2直球握法....14
圖2-1上肢關節瞬間所受的合力與合力矩之自由體圖..26
圖2-2反光球標記位置....32
圖2-3靜態中立姿勢....33
圖2-4軀幹(Trunk)座標系...37
圖2-5上臂(Upperarm)座標系...38
圖2-6前臂(Forearm)座標系...39
圖2-7手腕(Hand)座標系....40
圖2-8大腿(Thigh)座標系...41
圖2-9小腿(Shank)座標系...42
圖2-10骨盆(Pelvis)座標系...43
圖2-11上肢各個肢段座標系圖....44
圖2-12下肢各個肢段座標系圖....45
圖2-13腕關節、肘關節、肩關節及膝關節尤拉角的旋轉順序..47
圖2-14運動學計算流程....55
圖2-15動力學流程....56
圖2-16肘關節屈曲....58
圖2-17肩關節外旋/內旋...58
圖2-18肩關節垂直外展....58
圖2-19肩關節水平外展....58
圖2-20膝關節屈曲....59
圖2-21軀幹前傾....59
圖2-22軀幹外傾....59
圖2-23軀幹(ωUT)、骨盆(ωP)旋轉角速度...59
圖2-24肩關節受力定義....60
圖2-25肩關節受力矩定義....60
圖2-26肘關節受力定義....60
圖2-27肘關節受力矩定義....60
圖3-1三維動作分析系統....61
圖3-2手持式肌力器....62
圖3-3測速槍....62
圖3-4關節活動角度量角器....62
圖3-5實驗設備架設....66
圖3-6實驗流程....68
圖3-7傳接球熱身....70
圖3-8肩關節內旋角度....73
圖3-9肩關節外旋角度....73
圖3-10肘關節伸展角度....73
圖3-11肘關節屈曲角度....73
圖3-12提攜角角度……....73
圖3-13三民高中棒球場牛棚側面....77
圖3-14三民高中棒球場牛棚側面....78
圖3-15攝影機擷取畫面....79
圖4-1 GIRD群投手與Normal群投手投球前後慣用手衰退率比較圖.110
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