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系統識別號 U0026-3107201420423700
論文名稱(中文) 整合單攝影機之影像定位與同步建圖方法與接收訊號強度方法進行室內定位
論文名稱(英文) Integration of Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Fingerprinting for Indoor Positioning
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 呂道書
研究生(英文) Tao-Shu Lu
學號 p46011301
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 80頁
口試委員 口試委員-何慶雄
指導教授-詹劭勳
口試委員-孫志成
中文關鍵字 無線感測網路  環境特徵比對法  單眼影像定位與同步建圖技術  粒子濾波器  室內定位 
英文關鍵字 Received signal strength  fingerprinting  monocular simultaneous localization and mapping  particle filter  indoor positioning 
學科別分類
中文摘要 導航技術主要仰賴的全球衛星導航系統(Global Navigation Satellite System, GNSS),由於衛星訊號會遭受建築物遮蔽,因此當使用者身處室內環境時,一套作為替代的完善室內定位系統是必要的。本論文在考量儀器功耗的情況下,利用ZigBee無線傳輸模組來建構室內無線感測網路,再搭配接收訊號強度(Received Signal Strength)環境特徵比對法(fingerprinting method)來建立基礎的室內定位系統,但由於訊號在室內環境容易出現反射與折射的現象,因此該定位系統精確度仍有改善空間。在此本論文選擇利用單攝影機的單眼影像同步定位與建圖技術(Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping, MonoSLAM),藉由MonoSLAM提供速度資訊,作為改善fingerprinting室內定位系統的方法,當使用者手持攝影機拍攝時,MonoSLAM技術便利用擴展式卡爾曼濾波器(Extended Kalman Filter)從影片中估測使用者狀態,由於高頻率的拍攝影像與濾波器的幫助之下,將可獲得較原本定位系統精確且平滑的結果。最後本論文利用粒子濾波器(Particle Filter)將來自fingerprinting的定位結果與來自MonoSLAM的速度結果二者資訊整合輸出,並提出判斷步驟以確保MonoSLAM能持續給予正確的資訊,此研發之室內定位系統經由實際室內實驗結果驗證本論文提出的整合室內定位技術能成功改善室內定位系統效能。
英文摘要 Many applications for positioning and navigation services depend on global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Unfortunately, the GNSS cannot serve the indoor user because the signals from the satellites are blocked by buildings. The fingerprinting method based on the received signal strength (RSS) utilizes the pattern recognition to calculate the unknown user position in the indoor environment. However, the user dynamic states cannot be computed by the fingerprinting method. Monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (MonoSLAM) is an alternative method to provide the navigation service for the indoor user, and it estimates the user states through the changes in the video stream. The weakness of MonoSLAM is the accurate estimation of the camera direction changes. Because the estimated states of MonoSLAM are based on the previous states, the incorrect estimation would cause the divergence result with time. To complementary combine the fingerprinting method and the MonoSLAM method is the goal of the proposed integrated indoor positioning system. Thus, the particle filter is used in this work to utilize the velocity information determined by the MonoSLAM to improve the performance of fingerprinting positioning results, and an additional status check step is proposed to prevent any MonoSLAM failure. Finally, the experiment results of this thesis show that the integrated system reduces the indoor positioning error as well as the capability to correct the possible erroneous information from MonoSLAM.
論文目次 摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
致謝 ix
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 室內定位簡介 1
1.2 機器視覺簡介 3
1.3 研究動機與目的 4
1.4 文獻回顧 5
1.5 論文架構 9
第2章 室內定位系統流程介紹 11
2.1 無線傳輸定位技術 11
2.2 機器視覺技術 14
2.2.1 加速分段檢測 14
2.2.2 正交化相關係數匹配法 16
2.3 本章總結 18
第3章 室內定位整合演算法 19
3.1 環境特徵比對法 19
3.2 單眼影像同步定位與建圖技術 24
3.2.1 擴展式卡爾曼濾波器 24
3.2.2 MonoSLAM狀態與模型定義 25
3.2.3 圖資管理 (Map Management) 30
3.2.4 數據關聯性 31
3.3 應用粒子濾波器進行整合測試 37
3.3.1 整合系統介紹 39
3.3.2 整合系統定位權重計算方式 45
3.3.3 整合系統的MonoSLAM重啟設定 50
3.4 本章總結 55
第4章 實驗結果與分析 57
4.1 實驗設置 57
4.2 實驗結果 60
4.2.1 fingerprinting實驗結果與誤差分析 60
4.2.2 MonoSLAM實驗結果與誤差分析 62
4.3 整合系統實驗結果與誤差分析 66
4.4 本章結論 75
第5章 結論與未來工作 76
5.1 結論 76
5.2 未來工作 77
參考文獻 78
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