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系統識別號 U0026-3107201415043300
論文名稱(中文) 以生物單元BioNET處理飲用水原水中氨氮之模廠研究
論文名稱(英文) Pilot-Study on Nitrification Performance of BioNET for Ammonia Removal in Raw Water of Drinking Water Treatment
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 劉怡妏
研究生(英文) Yi-Wen Liu
學號 P56014076
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 105頁
口試委員 口試委員-李季眉
口試委員-林志高
口試委員-葉宣顯
口試委員-林財富
指導教授-黃良銘
中文關鍵字 BioNET  生物膜反應槽  硝化作用  淨水處理 
英文關鍵字 BioNET  nitrification  biofilm reactor  drinking water treatment 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於近年來氣候變遷與人類活動,使環境逐漸改變,以高屏溪為水源之鳳山淨水廠,其水源之水質與水量亦受到影響,冬天水量低以及夏天濁度高等問題,影響鳳山淨水場民生用水供水量與水質,因此急迫尋找替代水源。而東港溪作水量較高屏溪穩定且與其他河川相比離淨水廠距離較近,適合作為鳳山淨水廠之替代水源,唯東港溪之水質即使經過鳳山水庫之自淨作用亦未達到飲用水水源水質標準,無法進入自來水淨水程序,因此僅供為工業用水。
在東港溪污染中,有機物與氨氮為主要污染物,其中氨氮為本研究之目標污染物,氨氮進入自然水體,對水生動物造成毒害。早期採用前加氯方式除氮,然而氯與水中有機物易形成消毒副產物,危害人體健康,此外也會增加加氯成本,因此近期受污染原水處理以生物程序為主。
本研究於鳳山淨水廠設置生物前處理與淨水處理單元之模廠進行東港溪原水氨氮去除,以網狀性泡棉BioNET做為擔體,提供大表面積使微生物附著生長,針對以BioNET為擔體之生物前處理單元設計批次實驗,探討不同參數對硝化作用之影響,並以分子生物技術分析模廠之BioNET擔體中附著微生物之族群變化,了解模廠BioNET操作適合條件,作為實廠設置生物前處理之參考。
研究結果顯示,模廠操作HRT為0.5小時,進流氨氮為6 mg-N/L,出流濃度可符合飲用水水源水質標準。操作參數中,建議槽內溶氧控制在4 mg-N/L以上,以提供硝化微生物足夠溶氧;溫度與擔體VSS對硝化效率並無直接關係,VSS變化則可能與迴流相關。操作期間,原水水量不穩使氨氮進流不穩,可能降低硝化微生物族群,顯著影響硝化作用。
分子生物技術中,AOB之T-RFLP之螢光片段大小變化較AOA穩定,由PC-ORD分析結果顯示,AOB與氨氮去除量相關性較大,顯示氨氮去除量提高時,AOB族群更趨於單純之F219/R135,而F219/R135則須經由clone與定序了解其確切菌種;AOA則與溶氧相關,溶氧提高時,T-RF變多,相對螢光強度下降且較無顯著之T-RF。另一方面,qPCR結果顯示,AOB與Nitrospira分別為主要氨氧化菌與亞硝酸鹽氧化微生物,且擔體中AOB與NOB變化與VSS結果不同,相較於傳統VSS代表微生物量,qPCR定量結果較能表示硝化菌族群變化與硝化活性。此外,由AOB與硝化效率之關係圖亦顯示AOB達一定copy數後,硝化效率便趨於穩定,顯示AOB與硝化效率有顯著相關。
英文摘要 A pilot-scale biological pretreatment for biological ammonia removal of polluted raw water was operated to investigate the nitrification performance under different operational conditions. The batch experiments were done to comprehend the correlation between the nitrification performance and operational conditions, and solve the problem during operation. T-RFLP and qPCR were applied to analyze the nitrifiers community in the carrier. The effluent ammonia concentration can fit regulation standard when influent ammonia concentration is 6 mg-N/L and HRT is 0.5 h. DO should be controlled over 4 mg/L during operation. Besides, unstable water quantity slupply of the influent may decrease nitrification efficiency during pilot-scale operation. T-RFLP analysis revealed that both AOB and AOA exist in the biofilm reactor. AOB community was more stable and was affected by the amount of ammonia removal and AOA was affected by dissolved oxygen based on PC-ORD analysis. However, according to qPCR results, AOB and Nitrospira were the predominant ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the carriers, repectively.
論文目次 摘要 I
Extended Abstract III
致謝 IX
目錄 XI
表目錄 XIII
圖目錄 XV
第一章 研究緣起與目的 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 鳳山水庫與淨水廠情況 3
2-1-1 鳳山淨水廠水源與用水 3
2-1-2 鳳山水庫水質水量情況 4
2-2 氮循環與生物硝化作用 7
2-2-1 氮循環(Bock & Wagner, 2006) 7
2-2-2 生物硝化作用 9
2-2-3 硝化作用影響因子 10
2-2-4 硝化微生物 14
2-3 受污染原水生物前處理技術 22
2-3-1 生物前處理技術 22
2-3-2 歐洲與亞洲淨水系統生物硝化之研究 24
2-4 分子生物技術 28
2-4-1 聚合酶連鎖反應(Polymerase chain reaction, PCR) 30
2-4-2 尾端修飾限制片段長度多型性(Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, T-RFLP) 31
2-4-3 即時定量聚合酶連鎖反應(qPCR) 35
第三章 材料與方法 41
3-1 擔體與模廠 41
3-2 批次實驗方法 42
3-2-1 擔體特性 42
3-2-2 不同因子對硝化作用之影響 43
3-2-3 各階段硝化能力測試 44
3-3 配製基質 44
3-3-1 營養鹽 44
3-3-2 氨氮與硝酸鹽 45
3-4 分析方法 45
3-4-1 水質分析 45
3-4-2 分子生物技術 46
第四章 結果與討論 51
4-1 模廠生物前處理單元 51
4-1-1 模廠水質 51
4-1-2 進流與出流無機總氮 58
4-1-3 模廠參數分析 60
4-2 批次實驗 65
4-2-1 擔體特性 65
4-2-2 不同因子對硝化作用之影響 70
4-2-3 各階段硝化能力之比較 78
4-3 分子生物分析 80
4-3-1 T-RFLP 80
4-3-2 qPCR 88
第五章 結論 91
第六章 參考文獻 93





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