進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-3107201216575200
論文名稱(中文) 交通流量和荷重對多孔隙瀝青混凝土鋪面績效之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effect of Traffic Volume and Loading on Performance of Porous Asphalt Concrete(PAC)
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering (on the job class)
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 蔡佳成
研究生(英文) Chia-Cheng Tsai
學號 N67991133
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 142頁
口試委員 口試委員-林炳森
口試委員-張介民
口試委員-蕭志銘
口試委員-廖敏志
指導教授-陳建旭
中文關鍵字 多孔隙瀝青混凝土 
英文關鍵字 Porous Asphalt Concrete (PAC) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 多孔隙瀝青混凝土(Porous Asphalt Concrete, PAC)係指具有約70%~90%高比例粗粒料的開放級配,孔隙率高達15%~25%,可使雨水迅速由鋪面表面進入孔隙間,具有減少水霧現象、提高雨天行車能見度、提供良好的摩擦力及減少噪音提升環境品質等優點。但PAC鋪面受到交通量及天候環境等因素影響,使用一段時間後,可能導致發生剝落、鬆脫、孔隙堵塞壓實及車轍等情形。因此需要藉由各項PAC鋪面績效與交通流量資料之綜合分析,建立評估機制及提供一套完善維修養護方法,俾利延長服務年限及提供後續其他相關研究參考。
本研究範圍為國道6號西起霧峰系統交流道東至埔里端出口,全長37.6公里,選擇具代表性試驗路段進行現地鋪面透水量、噪音量檢測、平坦度、車轍量、Clegg衝擊及抗滑度等試驗,藉以評估PAC鋪面績效,然後再與交通流量及荷重資料進行綜合評估,俾便了解交通流量及荷重對於PAC鋪面績效之影響。
經綜合評估後,國道6號PAC鋪面檢測車轍值皆小於1 cm,初期隨交通荷重增加而緩慢增加,後期趨於穩定,顯示交通荷重影響PAC鋪面之平坦度,同時亦說明PAC具有抵抗永久變形之能力。在透水性方面,除2處外,其餘7處皆維持新工要求值 900ml/15sec以上。在現地噪音量方面,隨著ESAL值上升而增加,但同時受PAC自清效果而減緩增加趨勢,顯示PAC鋪面自清效果可延長績效年限。在抗滑度方面,隨交通荷重的增加而未有顯著變化,檢測路段之BPN值皆維持約在55以上,顯示PAC抗滑能力相當良好。整體而言,通車迄今PAC鋪面仍維持良好績效。
英文摘要 The goal of this research is to concentrate on the design, evaluation and efficiency of PAC. Porous Asphalt Concrete, which means a great proportion between 70 and 90 percent of coarse aggregations of open-graded gravel as well as high porosity, generally from 15 to 25 percent, allows rainwater to infiltrate promptly from the pavement surface into the air void. Also, PACs have been shown to be advantageous to us, such as increasing frictional resistance, reducing a number of splash and spray, lessening the potential for hydroplaning, enhancing the sight in rainy days, strengthening visibility of pavement markings and decreasing pavement noise. However, PAC pavements are subject to traffic, weather and environmental factors. For example, after a period of time, the frequent use of PAC pavements may lead to the occurrence of cracking, raveling, clogging and rutting. Therefore, it is necessary to establish various evaluations and provide a complete set of comprehensive repair and maintenance by the comprehensive analysis of various PAC pavement performance and traffic flow data in order to extend the length of service.
Secondly, the objective of this study was National Highway No.6, whose length was 36.7 kilometers. In addition, experimental accomplishing field permeameter, noise, roughness, rutting, Clegg Impact and Surface resistance tests in the specific and selective section of this highway was to conclude the efforts of the PAC pavement, which was associated with a exhaustive assessment of the statistic of passing vehicles and respectively loaded weight. Consequently, it was easier to further understand the influence of PAC pavement achievements.
Finally, all of tentative rutting values were less than 1 centimeter. The initial results came gradually high with the slow increases of traffic loads, and the later seemed to be sluggishly stabilized. According, traffic loads affected the flatness of the PAC pavement, while PACs had the ability to resist permanent deformation. In permeability, all tests, except for two, were required to maintain the beginning of the value of 900ml/15sec above. Also, the friction resistance of PACs didn’t make any significant changes. In a word, the use of PAC pavement in the transportation system has remained outstanding reputation so far.
論文目次 目錄
目錄 I
表目錄 V
圖目錄 VI
第一章 緒論 1-1
1.1 前言 1-1
1.2 研究動機 1-2
1.3 研究目的 1-2
1.4 研究範圍 1-3
第二章 文獻回顧 2-1
2.1 概論 2-1
2.1.1 多孔性瀝青混凝土 2-1
2.1.2 PAC與傳統OGFC之差異 2-2
2.2 其他國家之使用經驗 2-2
2.2.1 PAC演進及概述 2-2
2.2.2 PAC在美國之使用經驗 2-4
2.2.3 PAC在歐洲及其他國家之使用經驗 2-5
2.3 PAC的優點 2-5
2.3.1 行車安全性 2-5
2.3.2 行車舒適性 2-6
2.3.3 環境保護性 2-7
2.4 材料及配比設計 2-8
2.4.1 粒料 2-8
2.4.2 瀝青 2-9
2.4.3 穩定添加劑 2-10
2.4.4 填充料 2-11
2.4.5 配比設計 2-11
2.4.6 最佳瀝青含量 2-12
2.4.7 績效試驗 2-12
2.5 PAC鋪面結構設計 2-13
2.6 PAC之養護 2-16
2.6.1 PAC孔隙堵塞之清潔養護 2-17
2.6.2 預防性的表面養護 2-18
2.6.3 改善性的表面養護 2-20
2.7 PAC之修復 2-21
2.7.1 修復方法之區分 2-21
2.7.2 修復方法之介紹 2-22
2.8 PAC之績效 2-23
2.8.1 PAC鋪面的損壞型態 2-24
2.8.2 PAC的服務年限 2-26
2.8.3 PAC的績效年限 2-29
第三章 研究方法 3-1
3.1 試驗方法 3-3
3.2 現地試驗 3-4
3.2.1 現地透水量試驗 3-4
3.2.2 噪音量檢測試驗 3-5
3.2.3 平坦度試驗 3-6
3.2.4 車轍量試驗 3-7
3.2.5 Clegg衝擊試驗 3-8
3.2.6 抗滑度試驗 3-9
3.3 交通量收集 3-10
第四章 試驗結果與討論 4-1
4.1 PAC績效評估 4-1
4.1.1 功能性評估-現地透水量 4-1
4.1.2 功能性評估-噪音量 4-6
4.1.3 耐久性評估-平坦度 4-9
4.1.4 耐久性評估-車轍量 4-12
4.1.5 耐久性評估-Clegg衝擊值 4-14
4.1.6 安全性評估-抗滑度 4-17
4.2 交通量對PAC績效的影響 4-21
4.2.1 交通量與現地透水量之關係 4-24
4.2.2 交通量與噪音量之關係 4-27
4.2.3 交通量與平坦度之關係 4-29
4.2.4 交通量與車轍量之關係 4-32
4.2.5 交通量與Clegg衝擊值之關係 4-35
4.2.6 交通量與抗滑度之關係 4-37
4.3 PAC鋪面結構與其他效益之相關性 4-40
4.3.1 PAC鋪面結構 4-40
4.3.2 PAC鋪面效益 4-42
4.3.3 PAC結構設計調整與效益提升 4-43
4.3.4 排水效益提升 4-46
4.3.5 調整層之設置 4-47
第五章 結論及建議 5-1
5.1 結論 5-1
5.2 建議 5-3
參考文獻 參-1

附錄1 PAC養護手冊研擬
附錄1目錄
1.0 說明 附錄1-1
1.1 名詞定義 附錄1-1
1.2 一般要求 附錄1-4
1.3 PAC鋪面損壞形態、原因與養護對策之選擇 附錄1-6
1.4 PAC路面調查及檢測 附錄1-8
1.4.1 路面表面破壞調查 附錄1-9
1.4.2 路面表面破壞形式及嚴重等級說明 附錄1-11
1.4.3 鋪面路況指標(pavement condition index,PCI) 附錄1-16
附錄1表目錄
表1.3.1 PAC路面損壞形態、原因與養護對策 附錄1-7
表1.4.1-1 瀝青混凝土鋪面路況調查(PCI法)計算表(一) 附錄1-17
表1.4.1-2 瀝青混凝土鋪面路況調查(PCI法)計算表(二) 附錄1-17
表1.4.1-3 瀝青混凝土鋪面路況調查(PCI法)計算表(一)(範例) 附錄1-18
表1.4.1-4 瀝青混凝土鋪面路況調查(PCI法)計算表(二)(範例) 附錄1-19
表1.4.2 PCI與路面養護關係表 附錄1-19

圖目錄
圖2.6.1 日本自走清潔車【Abe et al.,2002】 2-18
圖3.1.1 研究流程圖 3-2
圖3.2.1 現地透水量試驗 3-5
圖3.2.2 現地噪音量檢測 3-6
圖3.2.3 現地平坦度試驗 3-7
圖3.2.4 現地車轍量試驗 3-8
圖3.2.5 Clegg衝擊試驗(CIT)設備 3-9
圖3.2.6 現地抗滑度試驗 3-10
圖4.1.1 各試驗路段通車前之現地透水量 4-2
圖4.1.2 通車後之輪跡處現地透水量 4-3
圖4.1.3 輪跡處現地透水量之統計分析 4-4
圖4.1.4 通車後之車道中心處現地透水量 4-5
圖4.1.5 HA8右輪跡孔隙分佈狀況 4-5
圖4.1.6 AR9右輪跡孔隙分佈狀況 4-5
圖4.1.7 通車後之等值噪音量 4-7
圖4.1.8 通車後之最大噪音量 4-8
圖4.1.9 通車後之最小噪音量 4-8
圖4.1.10 不同鋪面類型之等值噪音量 4-9
圖4.1.11 通車前之IRI值 4-10
圖4.1.12 通車後之輪跡處IRI值 4-10
圖4.1.13 通車後之車道中心處IRI值 4-11
圖4.1.13-1 不同儀器量測平均IRI值比較圖 4-12
圖4.1.14 通車前之輪跡處車轍量 4-13
圖4.1.15 通車後之輪跡處車轍量 4-13
圖4.1.16 輪跡處車轍量之統計分析 4-14
圖4.1.17 AR-80路堤段及橋梁段CIV值 4-15
圖4.1.18 不同瀝青在路堤結構之CIV值 4-16
圖4.1.19 鋼板橋與AR-80路堤段及橋梁段之CIV值比較 4-16
圖4.1.20 路面結構之CIV值 4-17
圖4.1.21 通車前之抗滑度 4-18
圖4.1.22 通車後之輪跡處抗滑度 4-19
圖4.1.23 輪跡處抗滑度之統計分析 4-20
圖4.1.24 通車後之車道中心處抗滑度 4-20
圖4.2.1 第2車道之累積總交通量 4-21
圖4.2.2 第2車道之平均每日交通量(ADT) 4-21
圖4.2.3 第2車道之累積總ESAL值 4-23
圖4.2.4 交通流量與現地透水量關係圖 4-25
圖4.2.5 交通荷重與現地透水量關係圖 4-25
圖4.2.6 交通荷重與現地透水量分析圖(東行線) 4-26
圖4.2.7 交通荷重與現地透水量分析圖(西行線) 4-26
圖4.2.8 交通流量與噪音量關係圖 4-27
圖4.2.9 交通荷重與噪音量關係圖 4-28
圖4.2.10 交通荷重與最大噪音量分析圖(東行線) 4-28
圖4.2.11 交通荷重與最大噪音量分析圖(西行線) 4-29
圖4.2.12 交通流量與平坦度關係圖 4-30
圖4.2.13 交通荷重與平坦度關係圖 4-30
圖4.2.14 交通荷重與輪跡處IRI值分析圖(東行線) 4-31
圖4.2.15 交通荷重與輪跡處IRI值分析圖(西行線) 4-31
圖4.2.16 交通流量與車轍量關係圖 4-33
圖4.2.17 交通荷重與車轍量關係圖 4-33
圖4.2.18 交通荷重與輪跡處車轍量分析圖(東行線) 4-34
圖4.2.19 交通荷重與輪跡處車轍量分析圖(西行線) 4-34
圖4.2.20 交通流量與輪跡處CIV值關係圖 4-36
圖4.2.21 交通荷重與輪跡處CIV值關係圖 4-36
圖4.2.22 交通荷重與輪跡處CIV值分析圖 4-37
圖4.2.23 交通流量與抗滑度關係圖 4-38
圖4.2.24 交通荷重與抗滑度關係圖 4-38
圖4.2.25 交通流量與輪跡處抗滑度分析圖(東行線) 4-39
圖4.2.26 交通荷重與輪跡處抗滑度分析圖(西行線) 4-39
圖4.3.1 PAC基本結構圖 4-40
圖4.3.2 PAC整體結構圖 4-41
圖4.3.3 國道6號橋工段鋪面結構示意圖 4-45
圖4.3.4 國道6號路堤段鋪面結構示意圖 4-45
圖4.3.5 HMA調整層 4-47

表目錄
表2.8.1 各種損壞型態【National Research Council,1993】 2-24
表2.8.2 各類混合料之表面紋理【McDaniel et al.,2005】 2-28
表2.8.3 各型混合料之IFI值【McDaniel et al.,2005】 2-29
表3.1.1 PAC鋪面檢測點位 3-3
表3.3.1 國道6號各標通車時間一覽表 3-11
表3.3.2 單軸載重當量數之計算參數 (AASHTO, 1993) 3-11
表4.1.1 國道6號平均IRI值 4-11
表4.2.1 第2車道之交通量 4-22
表4.2.2 第2車道累積ESAL值 4-23
表4.2.3 第2車道ADT與日平均ESAL值 4-24
表4.2.4 透水量與ESAL值迴歸式 4-26
表4.2.5 最大噪音量與ESAL值迴歸式 4-29
表4.2.6 IRI與ESAL值迴歸式 4-32
表4.2.7 車轍量與ESAL值迴歸式 4-35
表4.3.1 PAC不同厚度之排水能力 4-46
參考文獻 Abe, T. and Y. Kishi.(2002). Development of Low-Noise Pavement Function Recovery Machine. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Alvarez, A. E., A. Epps-Martin, C. K. Estakitiri, J. W. Button, C. J. Glover, and S. H. Jung.(2006). “Synthesis of Current Practice on the Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Porous Friction Courses.” FHWA/TX-06/0-5262-1. Texas Transportation Institute. College Station, Texas.
Alderson, A.(1996). The Design of Open Graded Asphalt. Australian Asphalt Pavement Association, CR C5151.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Offi-cials(1993). AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, Washington, D.C.
Barrett, M. P. Kearfott, J. Malina Jr., H. Landphair, M-H. Li, F. Olivera and P. Rammohan.(2006). Pollutant Removal or Vegetated Highway Shoulders. Report No FHWA/TX-05/0-4605-1. Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas.
Bishop, Michael C. and Michael F. Oliver.(2001). Open Graded Friction Course Pavements in British Columbia. Proceedings of the 46th Annual Conference of the Canadian Technological Asphalt Association, Toronto, Canada.
Bolzan, P. E., J. C. Nicholls, and G. A. Huber.(2001). Searching for Superior Performing Porous Asphalt Wearing Courses. TRB 2001 Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
Brousseaud, Y. and F. Anfosso-Lédée.(2005). Silvia Project Report: Review of Existing Low Noise Pavement Solutions in France. SILVIA-LCPC-011-01-WP4-310505. Sustainable Road Surfaces for Traffic Noise Control, European Commission.
Brown, E. R., A. Cooley, D. Hanson, C. Lynn, B. Powell, B. Prowell, and D. Watson.(2002). “NCAT Test Track Design, Construction, and Performance.” National Transportation Symposium, National Center for Asphalt Technology, Auburn, Alabama.
California Department of Transportation Division of Engineering Services.(2006). Open-Graded Friction Course Usage Guide. Materials Engineering and Testing Services MS#5. Sacramento, California.
Cooley, Jr., L. A., R. C. Ahlrich, D. E. Watson, and P. S. Kandhal.(2007). Improved Porous Friction Courses (IPFC) on Asphalt Airfield Pavements. Final Report. Airfield Asphalt Pavement Technology Program, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama.
Cooley, L. Allen, Jr., E. R. Brown, and D. E. Watson.(2000). Evaluation of Open-Graded Friction Course Mixtures Containing Cellulose Fibers. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1723, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 19–25.
Cooper S. B., C. Abadie, and L. N. Mohammad.(2004). Evaluation of Open-Graded Friction Course Mixture. Louisiana Transportation Research Center Technical Assistance Report Number 04-1TA.
Danish Road Directorate (DRD).(1999).Noise-Reducing Pavements for Urban Roads.Nordic Road & Transport Research, Volume No. 3.
Decoene, Y.(1990). Contribution of Cellulose Fibers to the Performance of Porous Asphalts. In Transportation Research Record 1265, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 82–86.
Federal Highway Administration.(1980).Open-Graded Friction Course FHWA Mix Design Method. Technical Advisory T 5040.31., Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.
Federal Highway Administration.(1990).Open-Graded Friction Course FHWA Mix Design Method. Technical Advisory T 5040.31. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.
Flintsch, G. W.(2004). Assessment of the Performance of Several Roadway Mixes Under Rain, Snow, and Winter Maintenance Activities. Final Contract Report, VTRC-04-CR18, Virginia Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, Virginia.
Graf, B. and E.(2005). Simond. Erfahrungen mit Dränasphaltbelägen im Kanton Waadt. (The Experience with Porous Asphalt in Canton Vaud). VSS publication Strasse und Verkehr, Route et Trafic.
Greibe, A. P.(2002). Porous Asphalt and Safety. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Hiershe, E. U. and H. J. Freund.(1992) Technology and In-Situ Trail of Noise Absorbing Pavement Structure. Proc. 7th International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, University of Nothinghan, United Kingdom.
Huber, G.(2000). Performance Survey on Open-Graded Friction Course Mixes. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 284:TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
Isenring, T., H. Köster, and I. Scazziga.(1990). Experiences with Porous Asphalt in Switzerland. In Transportation Research Record 1265, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 41–53.
Iwata, H., T. Watanabe, and T. Saito.(2002). Study on the Performance of Porous Asphalt Pavement on Winter Road Surface Conditions. XIth International Winter Road Conference, World Road Association (PIARC), Sapporo, Japan,
Kandhal, P. S.(2002). “Design, Construction and Maintenance of Open-Graded Asphalt Friction Courses.” National Asphalt PavementAssociation Information Series 115.
Kandhal, P. S. and R. B. Mallick.(1998). Transportation Research Circular E-C005: Open Graded Asphalt Friction Course: State of Practice. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
Kubo, K., H. Kido, and M. Ito(2006). Study on Pavement Technologies to Mitigate the Heat Island Effect and Their Effectiveness. 10th International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, Quebec City.(on CD-ROM)
Lefebvre, G.(1993). Porous Asphalt. Permanent International Association of Road Congresses.
Litzka, J.(2002). Austrian Experiences with Winter Maintenance on Porous Asphalt. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Mallick, R. B., P. S. Kandhal, L. A. Cooley, Jr., and D. E. Watson(2000). Design, Construction, and Performance of New Generation Open- Graded Friction Courses. NCAT Report No. 2000-01. National Center for Asphalt Technology, Auburn University.
McDaniel, R. S. and William Thornton.(2005). Field Evaluation of a Porous Friction Course for Noise Control. TRB 2005 Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
Molenaar, J. M. M. and A. A. A. Molenaar.(2000). An Investigation into the Contribution of the Bituminous Binder to the Resistance to Raveling of Porous Asphalt. 2nd Eurasphalt & Eurobitume Congress, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 500–508.
Moore, L. M. and R. G Hicks.(2001). Design, Construction, and Maintenance Guidelines for Porous Asphalt Pavements. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1778. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 91–99.
National Research Council.(1993).Distress Identification Manual for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Project. Strategic Highway Program. SHRP–P-338. TRB, Washington, D.C.
Padmos, C.(2002). Over Ten Years Experience with Porous Road Surfaces. Ninth International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, International Society of Asphalt Pavements, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Pasetto, M.(2000). Porous Asphalt Concretes with Added Microfibres. 2nd Eurasphalt & Eurobitumen Congress, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 438–447.
Pucher, E., J. Litzka, J. Haberl, and J. Girard.(2004). Silvia Project Report:Report on Recycling of Porous Asphalt in Comparison with Dense Asphalt. SILVIA-036-01-WP3-260204. Sustainable Road Surfaces for Traffic Noise Control, European Commission.
Ranieri, V.(2002). Runoff Control in Porous Pavements. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1789, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., pp. 46–55.
Rogge, D. and E. A. Hunt.(1999). Development of Maintenance Practices for Oregon F-Mix – Interim Report SPR371. Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem, Oegon.
Rogge, D.(2002). Development of Maintenance Practices for Oregon F-Mix. Oregon Department of Transportation, FHWA-OR-RD-02-09, Corvallis, Oregon.
Ruiz, A., R. Alberola, F. Pérez, and B. Sánchez.(1990). Porous Asphalt Mixtures in Spain. In Transportation Research Record 1265, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 87–94.
Santha, L.(1997). A Comparison of Modified Open-Graded Friction Courses to Standard Open-Graded Friction Course. FHWA-GA-97-9110.Georgia Department of Transportation, Forest Park, Georgia.
Titus-Glover, L. and S. D. Tayabji.(1999). Assessment of LTPP Friction Data. Report FHWA-RD-99-037. Federal Highway Administration. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C.
Van Der Zwan, J. T., T. Goeman, H. J. A. J. Gruis, J. H. Swart, and R. H. Oldenburger.(1990). Porous Asphalt Wearing Courses in the Netherlands : State of the Art Review. In Transportation Research Record 1265, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. pp. 95–110.
Van Heystraeten, G. and C. Moraux.(1990). Ten Years’ Experience of Porous Asphalt in Belgium. In Transportation Research Record 1265, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 34–40.
Watson, D. E., E. Masad, K. A. Moore, K. Williams, L. A. Cooley.(2004). Verification of Voids in Course Aggregate Testing to Determine Stone-On-Stone Contact of Hot-Mix Asphalt Mixtures. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1891, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 182–190.
Watson, D. E., K. A. Moore, K. Williams, and L. A. Cooley.(2003). Refinement of New Generation Open-Graded Friction Course Mix Design. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1832, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 78–85.
Watson, Donald, A. Johnson and D. Jared.(1998). Georgia Department of Transportation’s Progress in Open-Graded Friction Course Development. In Transportation Research Record 1616, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 30–35.
Wimsatt, A. J. and T. Scullion.(2003). Selecting Rehabilitation Strategies for Flexible Pavements in Texas. TRB 2003 Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2015-08-14起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2015-08-14起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw