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系統識別號 U0026-3008201818275400
論文名稱(中文) 台灣北部金瓜石酸性礦山排水整治及稀土元素富集
論文名稱(英文) Acid mine drainage remediation and recovery of rare earth elements in Chin-Kua-Shih, northern Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 游耀智
研究生(英文) Yao-Chih You
學號 L46054055
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 62頁
口試委員 指導教授-游鎮烽
口試委員-黃耀輝
口試委員-黃國芳
中文關鍵字 酸性礦山排水  稀土元素  流體化床  吸附 
英文關鍵字 acid mine drainage  rare earth elements  fluidized bed reactor  adsorption 
學科別分類
中文摘要 金瓜石黃金瀑布為典型酸性礦山排水(Acid Mine Drainage),含有過量重金屬及硫酸根的酸性排水,對當地環境產生嚴重的污染。稀土元素(Rare Earth Elements)為重要工業原料之一,且濃度在酸性礦山排水中遠高於其他自然水體(千倍以上),因此酸性礦山排水具提取稀土資源之經濟效益。為降低酸性排水中重金屬濃度及資源化稀土元素,本研究進行兩組實驗,一組為使用流體化床結晶技術進行共沉澱實驗。另一組為使用再生針鐵礦、磷酸鹽類進行吸附實驗。並利用感應耦合電漿光譜儀(ICP-OES)、感應耦合電漿質譜儀(ICP-MS)、離子層析儀(IC)量測黃金瀑布、廢礦坑排水與實驗過後水樣中的主要元素、微量元素以及陰離子濃度,用以評估酸性礦山排水對環境之汙染與稀土元素資源化之成效。研究成果證實,流體化床結晶技術可以提升水樣的pH值,有效降低酸性排水中重金屬濃度並使溶液中的稀土元素以沉澱物的形式存在固體當中。吸附實驗結果顯示,吸附劑BT9M (α-FeOOH-εMnO2)能有效地降低水樣中的稀土元素與重金屬濃度,使其吸附在吸附劑表面,並以Freundlich等溫吸附模式進行吸附,不過在金瓜石水樣的酸性條件下非最佳的吸附狀態。另外,磷酸鹽類中的MgNH4PO4,CaHPO4也具有吸附稀土元素之能力,但在酸性條件下會溶於液體當中,所以不適合應用在金瓜石水體。本實驗的結果將可提供未來酸性礦山排水的整治方向參考,預期在整治的過程中具有回收稀土元素的附加價值。
英文摘要 The acid mine drainage (AMD) is a severe environmental problem in mining areas, e.g., Chin-Kua-Shih, northern Taiwan, because of its high acidity as well as abundant toxic elements, and sulfate contents. Nonetheless, rare earth elements (REEs), popular raw materials for modern industries, are found enriched in AMD. In this study, we provided two remediation methods to neutralize the water acidity and recover the REEs from the Chin-Kua-Shih AMD system. For one hand, laboratory precipitation experiments using fluidized bed reactor had successfully reduced the heavy metals and REEs concentration of AMD waters by adsorption processes; Meanwhile, the inserted carbonate neutralized the water pH from 2.8 to 5.1. On the other hand, laboratory batch adsorption experiments showed that BT9M (α-FeOOH-εMnO2), a by-product of FBR-fenton, could adsorb the REEs and toxic metals from the AMD waters. The adsorption isotherm model of cerium on BT9M fits well with the Freundlich isotherm model. The Freundlich constant, n < 1, and zeta potential of εMnO2 indicated that BT9M performed unfavorable adsorption in acidic solutions. Overall, this study has demonstrated reliable remediation and REEs recovery approaches for the AMD waters, that aims for developments in the future remediation projects.
論文目次 摘要 Ⅰ
ABSTRACT Ⅱ
誌謝 Ⅵ
目錄 Ⅶ
表目錄 Ⅸ
圖目錄 Ⅹ
第 一 章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 研究目的及內容 3
第 二 章 文獻回顧 4
2-1酸性礦山排水的生成及整治 4
2-2 吸附理論 10
2-2-1 吸附作用 10
2-2-2 等溫吸附模式 12
2-2-3 影響吸附作用之因素 17
2-3 流體化床結晶技術簡介 20
2-3-1 流體化床結晶技術之沿革與發展現況 20
2-3-2 流體化床結晶技術之原理 21
第 三 章 研究地區概況 22
第 四 章 研究原理與方法 25
4-1 採樣流程 25
4-2 儀器分析 26
4-2-1 主要元素分析 26
4-2-2 微量元素分析 28
4-2-3 晶相分析 29
4-3 流體化床沉澱實驗 30
4-3-1 流體化床沉澱實驗架構 30
4-3-2 沉澱實驗 31
4-3-3 流體化床沉澱實驗 31
4-4 吸附實驗 33
4-4-1吸附實驗架構 33
4-4-2實驗裝置及步驟 34
第 五 章 結果與討論 35
5-1 金瓜石酸性礦山排水之化學組成 35
5-2 流體化床沉澱實驗 40
5-2-1 水樣濃度與pH值監測 41
5-3 吸附實驗結果 46
5-3-1 各吸附劑之吸附效果 46
5-4 效益評估 53
第 六 章 結論 54
參考文獻 56
附錄一 吸附劑之稀土元素組成 62

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