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系統識別號 U0026-3008201812461800
論文名稱(中文) 淨化呼吸在家練習改變心律變異及靜息態腦區功能連結之探討
論文名稱(英文) To Investigate Heart Rate Variability and Resting State Functional Connectivity after the Practice of Short Sudarshan Kriya Yoga
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 生理學研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Physiology
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 李盛凱
研究生(英文) SHeng-Kai Lee
學號 S36041048
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 66頁
口試委員 口試委員-林梅鳳
口試委員-林君昱
指導教授-黃阿敏
中文關鍵字 淨化呼吸法  心率變異分析  靜息態功能性核磁共振造影 
英文關鍵字 Sudarshan Kriya Yoga  Heart rate variability  resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging 
學科別分類
中文摘要 呼吸是人體本能行為之一,也被發現可以反映不同的情緒表現。呼吸的調節是少數幾個能自我調整自律神經系統功能的方法,藉由改變呼吸頻率能有效透過調整自律神經系統活性來增進情緒品質。淨化呼吸法是一種世界廣為流傳的瑜珈呼吸調節法,臨床實證發現淨化呼吸法能減少負向情緒疾患的表現,如憂鬱的情緒傾向。在心率變異分析的研究上,已知淨化呼吸法可以有效提升心率變異度,增加副交感神經活性,改善心臟功能與情緒的調節。但是,淨化呼吸法如何透過神經機轉雙向調控情緒表現與自律神經功能表現,目前尚未知。本研究先利用指脈搏式心率變異分析四十七位健康的淨化呼吸法初學者練習前後的自律神經功能,再用靜息態核磁共振造影技術與光體積測量式心律變異,分析十五位練習超過一個月淨化呼吸法的學員,練習前後的腦影像與心律變異變化。心率變異分析發現初學者練習淨化呼吸法後,心率變異程度明顯提升。靜息態核磁造影的全腦影像分析結果發現,淨化呼吸練習後有十二個腦區活性上升,七個腦區活性下降,且大多數變化腦區都位在前額葉皮層。進一步將腦區活性與心率變異度進行相關分析,發現有二十個腦區不但跟淨化呼吸法介入有關,也跟心率變異度改變有關。所有腦區中,以中側扣帶迴皮質層前端變化最明顯。進一步以它為基準點,發現淨化呼吸練習後,有七個腦區跟它有同步的變化,另外有六個腦區跟它有反向的變化。研究成果呈現淨化呼吸法介入後不但能提升心率變異度,同時也能改變許多跟情緒調節相關的腦區活性。
英文摘要 Breathing is one of essential human behaviors. It can reflect different emotional expressions and is one of the strategies for manipulating autonomic tone and maintain emotion quality. Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) is a breathing control intervention method. Studies have demonstrated that SKY can improve negative affective sensation, such as depressive emotion, as well as improve cardiovascular function by increasing heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac vagal tone. However, the neural mechanisms of which brain areas SKY may influence to change central and peripheral outcome on emotional releasing and autonomic activity are still unknown. In this study, forty-seven healthy participants who are beginners for SKY were recruited for finger pulse HRV analysis. Then fifteen experienced participants who practice SKY more than one month were recruited for resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and photoplethysmographic (PPG) HRV analysis. Results showed that twelve brain regions increased and seven brain regions decreased their activity after SKY. Most of these brain regions located in the prefrontal cortex. Further analysis found that twenty brain regions correlated with HRV and SKY. Among them, anterior middle cingulate cortex (aMCC) was chosen as the seed region for functional connectivity analysis. Results showed that seven brain regions had positive and six brain regions had negative connectivity with aMCC after SKY practice. This study demonstrates that SKY not only increase HRV, but also change brain areas related with emotional regulation.
論文目次 Contents
中文摘要 ............... I
Abstract ................ II
致謝 .................III
Contents ................ V
Table Contents .............. VII
Figure Contents .............. VIII
Introduction ............... 1
1. Breathing intervention is workable to regulate emotions ..... 1
2. Sudarshan Kriya Yoga breathing is an efficient intervention for release negative emotions.............. 1
3. Breathing and the autonomic nervous system ...... 3
4. ANS is highly correlated with emotional generation ..... 3
5. Heart rate variability (HRV) and emotional regulation ...... 5
6. Linking HRV and brain regional activity and functional connectivity by functional magnetic resonance imaging ........ 6
7. The Relationship of Brain Regions and Emotional Controls Using fMRI studies .. 7
Hypothesis ................ 8
Specific Aims: ............. 8
Materials and Methods .............. 9
Subjects: .............. 9
Procedures:.............. 9
Heart Rate Variability Recording(HRV) ........ 10
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) ....... 11
Data Analysis: ............ 12
HRV Analyses ............ 12
fMRI analysis: Data Aquisition and Preprocessing ....... 13
VI
fMRI analysis: Brain Functional Analysis ......... 14
fMRI analysis: Signal Extraction for Region of Interests (ROIs) .... 15
Statistical Methods ........... 16
Results ................ 17
1. Increase of HRV after short SKY in the beginners- using portable finger pulse recording ............. 17
2. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) analysis before and after SKY-- ReHo analysis . 19
3. Increase of HRV after the short SKY in the experienced practitioners -- using PPG recording ............ 20
4. Brain Regions which Activity are Correlated with RMSSD before and after SKY. 21
5. Brain regions with significant increase or decrease in function connectivity with aMCC. .............. 22
6. Using Gaussian random field (GRF) as multiple comparison correction to confirm the quality of brain imaging. ........ 23
Discussion ............... 24
1. Findings of This Study ........... 24
2. Increase of HRV after the Short SKY in Beginners as well as Experienced Practitioners ............ 24
3. Changes of brain activity after Short SKY in Experienced Subjects. .. 25
4. Correlation between ReHo analysis and PPG-HRV ...... 26
5. Change of Functional Connectivity after SKY ...... 27
6. Increase and Decrease of Activity of Brain Regions suggest Linkage between SKY and Emotional Regulation. ......... 28
7. HRV as Biomarker to Illustrate Emotional Benefits from the SKY practice . 29
8. Limitations of the Study .......... 30
Conclusion ................ 32
References ................ 33
Curriculum Vitae ............... 56
VII
Table Contents
Table 1. Increase of HRV After the Short SKY in Beginners (n = 47) by Finger Pulse Sensor. ............. 40
Table 2. Brain Regions with Significant Increased Activity in ReHo Analysis after SKY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……41
Table 3. Brain Regions with Significant Decreased Activity in ReHo Analysis after SKY .............. 42
Table 4. Negative Correlation with RMSSD in ReHo analysis Before SKY. ... 43
Table 5. Negative Correlation with RMSSD in ReHo analysis After SKY ... 44
Table 6. Brain Regions with Significant Increase in Functional Connectivity with the Seed Region of aMCC after SKY. ........ 45
Table 7. Brain Regions with Significant Decrease in Functional Connectivity with the Seed Region of aMCC after SKY. ........ 46
VIII
Figure Contents
Figure 1. The protocol of HRV detection and fMRI scanning process in participants of the happiness program (HP) in which the SKY is taught. ..... 47
Figure 2. DMN pattern before and after SKY.. ....... 48
Figure 3. Individual brain images of 15 subjects by ReHo analysis before and after SKY.. .............. 49
Figure 4. Significant increase activity in aMCC and parahippocampal shown as a comparison of KCC maps between before and after SKY by ReHo analysis. . .. 50
Figure 5. Significant decrease activity in caudate and rACC shown as a comparison of KCC maps between before and after SKY by ReHo analysis.. .... 51
Figure 6.Increase of HRV after SKY in experienced practitioners analyzed by the PPG sensor and recording ........... 52
Figure 7.Negative correlation between aMCC and RMSSD before and after SKY by using ReHo analysis. ........... 53
Figure 8. Negative correlation but no significant correlation between mPFC and RMSSD before and after SKY by using ReHo analysis. . ..... 54
Figure 9. Differences in functional connectivity (differences in T-score map) with the seed region of aMCC between before and after SKY………………….…………………55
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