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系統識別號 U0026-3008201211335500
論文名稱(中文) 疲勞對於芭蕾舞者平衡表現和動作控制的影響
論文名稱(英文) The effect of fatigue on balance performance and movement control in ballet dancers
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 物理治療研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Physical Therapy
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 陳怡安
研究生(英文) Yi-An Chen
學號 t66991070
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 175頁
口試委員 指導教授-林呈鳳
口試委員-吳鴻文
口試委員-楊政峰
口試委員-郭立杰
中文關鍵字 疲勞  連續性相對相位分析法  非控制域理論  協調性  動作變異性 
英文關鍵字 Fatigue  Continuous relative phase  Uncontrolled manifold  Coordination  Movement variability 
學科別分類
中文摘要 背景:疲勞是運動員在長時間練習後無法避免的現象,而芭蕾舞者需要長時間的練習,因此,也是發生疲勞的高危險族群,其中又以下肢疲勞最常發生。在長時間的練習且沒有適當的休息,舞者的動作控制能力會下降,運動傷害發生的風險也隨之增加。然而,鮮少研究針對疲勞對於芭蕾舞者的影響以及其可能造成的傷害做探討;因此,本篇研究目的為探討疲勞對於舞者在平衡、動作表現以及動作控制的影響。
方法:二十位年輕健康的女性舞者在疲勞誘發前和誘發後分別執行四種不同的舞蹈動作:開合小跳(petit echappe)、雙足站姿下墊腳(releve)、單腳支撐並升降重心(fondu)以及單腳靜止站立(retire)。動作過程中,八台紅外線攝影機和兩塊力板會分別記錄舞者的動作以及地面反作用力,且同時以肌電儀收取下肢的肌電訊號。此外,利用連續性相對相位分析法(continuous relative phase)及非控制域理論(uncontrolled manifold)分析舞者肢體協調的表現;連續性相對相位分析法量化下肢關節間協調性,利用關節位置與關節角速度求得關節間的相位偏差,較多的相位偏差代表關節間的相對運動較無一致性;非控制域理論將全身肢段的變異量切割為目標等同變異量和非目標等同變異量,其中目標等同變異量不會造成身體質量中心位置的改變,而非目標等同變異量則會造成身體質量中心位置的改變,探討肢段的變異量是否會對影響舞者控制身體質量中心的位置。隨後,使用配對樣本t檢定法比較疲勞前後是否有顯著差異。
結果:在疲勞之後,(1)跳躍或是墊腳的高度都有顯著下降;(2)肌肉活性改變,拮抗肌的肌肉活性下降,作用肌的肌肉活性不變,肌電訊號的中位頻率左移;(3)跳躍著地時,有較小的地面反作用力;(4)身體重心位置移動的速度及距離在前後及左右方向都增加;(5)下肢關節間有較多的相位偏差;(6)身體肢段間的變異量在目標等同變異量和非目標等同變異量皆增加,又以目標等同變異量增加較多。
結論:疲勞會影響舞者的動作表現並且改變動作控制的模式,舞者在動作過程中所呈現較差的平衡能力及不穩定的動作控制皆有可能造成受傷機率上升。此外,身體肢段的變異量增加也會影響動作的美觀性。因此,根據本篇研究,應該為舞者量身訂製適當的訓練方法(例如:腓長肌訓練或神經肌肉控制訓練),以促進舞者的表現,減少疲勞的產生並降低傷害發生的可能性。
英文摘要 Background and Purpose: Fatigue is an unavoidable phenomenon in athletes during their routine practice. The decreased ability of movement control after exhaustion may increase the risk of injury; for example, ballet dancers often suffer from lower extremity injury after long duration of performance or rehearsal. However, few studies evaluated the effect of fatigue on ballet dancers’ performance and control strategy. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of fatigue on the balance performance, movement performance, and movement control in the ballet dancers.
Methods: Twenty healthy female ballet dancers participated in this study and performed petit echappe, releve, fondu and retire before and after fatigue, respectively. A motion analysis system recorded three-dimensional videographic data and is also synchronized to two force plates to record the ground reaction force. The Delsys surface electromyography system (EMG) was used to detect the muscle activity of medial gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus longus, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and hamstrings in data collection. In addition, continuous relative phase and uncontrolled manifold were used to analyze the movement pattern. Continuous relative phase (CRP) was used to evaluate the inter-joint coordination in dancers’ lower extremity. The lower deviation phase indicates a more consistent coordination pattern between two joints. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) portions the segmental variability into two components; one component didn’t affect center of mass (COM) position, the other component led COM position changed. The paired-t test was used to detect the difference between pre-fatigue and post-fatigue with a significant level in 0.05.
Results: We found that the fatigue (1) reduced the jumping height or raising height; (2) decreased the muscle activity of antagonist but increased the muscle activity of agonist muscle with left shifted median frequency; (3) diminished the ground reaction force during landing; (4) increased displacement of center of mass or center of pressure with faster velocity in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions; (5) increased the deviation phase between the joints of lower limbs; (6) increased the variability in both UCM components, especially in the parallel UCM component.
Conclusions: Fatigue changed the dancers’ movement pattern and impaired their performance. Poor balance ability and unstable movement control observed in our ballet dancers may increase the risk of injury. Furthermore, the greater movement variability also affected the dancing aesthetic. According to our findings, a proper training program, such as peroneal longus muscle training or neuromuscular control practice, to reduce or to delay the occurrence of fatigue is necessary for ballet dancers to enhance performance and to prevent dance-related injuries.
論文目次 考試合格證明 II
中文摘要(Chinese abstract) III
英文摘要(English abstract) V
致謝(Acknowledgement) VIII
目次 (Table of Content) X
表目錄(List of Table) XIII
圖目錄(List of Figure) XV
Chapter 1 Background 1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 3
2.1 Introduction of Ballet dance 3
2.1.1 Basic concepts in ballet 3
2.1.2 Motor control in ballet dancers 6
2.1.3 Epidemiology of ballet injury 8
2.2 Fatigue 10
2.2.1 The definition of fatigue 10
2.2.2 Physiology of neuromuscular fatigue 10
2.2.3 The potential risk of fatigue for athletes 12
2.3 Analysis for movement 13
2.3.1 Continuous relative phase angle (CRP) 14
2.3.2 Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) 15
2.4 Research purpose 17
2.5 Hypothesis 17
Chapter 3 Materials and Methods 19
3.1 Subjects 19
3.2 Instrumentations 19
3.3 Experimental procedure 22
3.3.1 Anthropometry measurement 23
3.3.2 Fatigue protocol 25
3.3.3 Data collection 29
3.4 Data reduction 32
3.4.1 Parameters 33
3.4.2 Analysis of human movement 36
3.4.3 Phase definition 43
3.4.4 Dependent variable 44
3.5 Statistical analysis 47
Chapter 4 Result 48
4.1 Basic data 48
4.2 Petit Echappe 48
4.2.1 Temporal parameters 49
4.2.2 Kinematic parameters 50
4.2.3 Kinetic parameters 54
4.2.4 EMG parameters 57
4.3 Releve 63
4.3.1 Temporal parameters 63
4.3.2 Kinematic parameters 63
4.3.3 EMG parameters 68
4.4 Battenment Fondu 72
4.4.1 Temporal parameters 72
4.4.2 Kinematic parameters 72
4.4.3 Kinetic parameters 78
4.4.4 EMG parameters 79
4.5 Retiré 83
4.5.1 Kinematic parameters 83
4.5.2 Kinetic parameters 85
4.5.3 EMG parameters 87
4.6 Analysis of human movement 92
4.6.1 Continuous relative phase 92
4.6.2 Uncontrolled manifold 104
Chapter 5 Discussion 116
5.1 Petit Echappe 116
5.1.1 Temporal parameters 116
5.1.2 Kinematic parameters 118
5.1.3 Kinetic parameters 123
5.1.4 EMG parameters 127
5.2 Releve 131
5.2.1 Temporal parameters 131
5.2.2 Kinematic parameters 131
5.2.3 EMG parameters 134
5.3 Battenment Fondu 137
5.3.1 Temporal parameters 137
5.3.2 Kinematic parameters 137
5.3.3 Kinetic parameters 141
5.3.4 EMG parameters 141
5.4 Retire 143
5.4.1 Kinematic parameters 143
5.4.2 Kinetic parameters 144
5.4.3 EMG parameters 145
5.5 Analysis of human movement 146
5.5.1 Continuous relative phase 147
5.5.2 Uncontrolled manifold 155
5.6 Limitation 159
Chapter 6 Conclusion 161
References 163

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