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系統識別號 U0026-3008201114215600
論文名稱(中文) 不同中文輸入法使用者的認知和語言處理方式
論文名稱(英文) Cognitive and Linguistic Processing in Users of Different Chinese Computer Entry Methods
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 認知科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Cognitive Science
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 李承逸
研究生(英文) Cheng-Yi Li
學號 u7696105
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 100頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳振宇
口試委員-楊憲明
口試委員-郭俊顯
中文關鍵字 中文輸入法  工作記憶  唸名作業 
英文關鍵字 Chinese input method  working memory  naming task 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著科技進步,文明產物(如電腦)為了改善人類的生活而出現,而電腦的使用是否會影響認知吸引了各界的注意。在這個議題下,中文輸入法的使用便相當值得探討。中文輸入法主要可分為三類:字音輸入法(如注音)、字形輸入法(如倉頡)、字音字形混合輸入法(如嘸蝦米)。為了研究中文輸入法的使用與認知的關係,我們以三個實驗探討注音打字者和倉頡打字者打字歷程與工作記憶上的可能差異。我們假設注音打字者需先將字音訊息從長期記憶提取至語音工作記憶,之後轉換為注音碼,再輸出。因此,對於慣用注音輸入法的打字者來說,可能因為長期使用語音工作記憶,而使得語音工作記憶的容量增加。對倉頡打字者來說,在打字的歷程中,需先將字形訊息先從長期記憶中提取至視覺空間工作記憶中,之後進行字形的拆碼規則而取得倉頡碼,再進行輸出。因此,慣用倉頡輸入法的打字者可能因為長期使用倉頡輸入法,而使得視覺空間工作記憶的容量增加。實驗一以五個語音工作記憶測驗及五個視覺空間工作記憶測驗測量倉頡打字者與注音打字者在這兩方面的工作記憶之差別。結果顯示,注音打字者在語音工作記憶測驗中優於倉頡打字者,但是在視覺空間的記憶上沒有多大差別。注音打字者在視覺空間工作記憶上沒有比倉頡打字者差,可能原因是注音受試者在打字過程中,由於中文同音字的緣故,必須常常選字,選字的過程需動用視覺空間工作記憶。實驗二以促發打字作業探討倉頡與注音打字者之打字歷程。我們操弄促發字與目標字首輸入碼同異、首輸出碼(字的部件)同異、以及呈現的時距(100毫秒與300毫秒)。結果未發現倉頡打字時的任何促發效果,但是注音打字則有首輸入碼促發效果、首輸出碼促發效果、及時距的效果。此結果顯示,在注音打字的過程中,處理單位最小可到音素。首輸出碼促發效果是負的,相當於唸名作業中所觀察到的形似抑制效果,這意味著注音打字與唸名有部分歷程是相同的。實驗三比較注音與倉頡打字者在語音促發唸名作業中的語音促發效果藉此探討注音與倉頡打字者對字音訊息的敏感度是否不同。實驗結果未能偵測到顯著的語音促發效果,因而無法以此結果驗證上述的假設。總結而言,本研究觀察到注音與倉頡打字者在一般認知(工作記憶)及文字產出的歷程上若干不同之處,這說明了人類認知運作的方式與長期使用某些科技產品確實有些關聯,這意味著認知雖有普遍性,但是也會因環境而特異化;認知並非是個體內孤獨的活動,而是與環境相結合的延伸性心智。
英文摘要 With the advances of technology, artifacts such as computers showed up to improve the quality of life. Whether the use of computer influences cognition has attracted attention. Specifically, the computer input methods of Mandarin Chinese provide one of the means to tackle this issue. The input methods of Mandarin Chinese are classified into three categories: phonology-based (e.g., Zhuyin), orthography-based (e.g., Cangjie) and both phonology- and orthography-based (e.g., Boshiamy). To probe into the the relationship between the use of Chinese input method and cognition, we carried out three experiments to know the typing process and possible differences in working memory capacity between Zhuyin typists and Cangjie typists. It was hypothesized that Zhuyin typists retrieve the sound transcriptions from long-term memory into verbal working memory (VWM), and then transform them into Zhuyin codes and then store them there waiting to be input. Thus, the capacity of VWM of Zhuyin typists may be enhanced owing to the constant use of VWM. As for Cangjie, it was hypothesized that Cangjie typists retrieve the orthography of Chinese characters from long-term memory into visual-spatial working memory (VSWM), apply orthography-based decomposition rules to transform them into Cangjie codes and then store them before typing. Thus, the capacity of VSWM may be enhanced owing to constant use of VSWM. In experiment 1, 5 VWM and 5 VSWM tasks were used to measure the WMC of Zhuyin and Cangjie typists. The results showed that Zhuyin typists did better on VWM tasks than Cangjie typists, but the two groups of typists did not differ much on VSWM tasks. Our possible explanation is that Zhuyin typists need to select the right character due to the fact that there are many homophones in Chinese, so they also need to use VSWM during character selection. In experiment 2, we carried out primed word experiments in typing. We manipulated the first input code and the first output code between the primes and the targets and SOAs (100 ms and 300 ms). The result showed that we did not find any priming effect during Cangjie typing, but during Zhuyin typing, we found priming effects of the first input and output codes and the effect of SOAs. We can also know from the result that during Zhuyin typing process, the minimum processing unit can be phonemes. The negative priming effect of the first output code is similar to the form inhibition effect in naming tasks, which means that Zhuyin and naming are the same in some process. In experiment 3, we wanted to compare the phonological priming effects in phonological naming task between Zhuyin and Cangjie typists to know whether Zhuyin and Cangjie typists are different in the sensitivity of phonological information. The result showed that we could not find significant phonological priming effect. Thus, we could not test our hypothesis by this result. In short, this study revealed that there were some differences in general cognition (working memory) and language production between Zhuyin and Cangjie typists, which means that the ways human cognition processes are somewhat related to long-time use of artifacts. Cognition is not within individuals, but the extended mind combined with environments.
論文目次 Table of contents
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Table of contents v
Tables ix
Figures x
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Cognition: the traditional view 1
1.2 Cognition: the extended-mind view 2
1.3 The technological shaping of cognition 5
Chapter 2 Chinese Input Methods 9
2.1 Classification of the popular Chinese input methods 9
2.1.1 Zhuyin input method (phonology-based) 9
2.1.2 Pinyin input method (phonology-based) 11
2.1.3Cangjie input method (orthography-based) 11
2.1.4 Wubi input method (orthography-based) 13
2.1.5 CKC input method (orthography-based) 14
2.2 Comparison of the popular Chinese input methods 14
2.2.1 Phonology-based input methods 14
2.2.1.2 Zhuyin input method 14
2.2.1.2 Pinyin input method 15
2.2.2 Orthography-based input methods 15
2.3 Chinese Input Methods and Cognition 16
2.3.1 The studies in Taiwan 16
2.3.2 The studies in Mainland China 17
2.3.3 Discussion 18
Chapter 3 Experiment 1 20
3.1 Purpose 20
3.2 Methods 21
3.2.1 Participants 21
3.2.2 Working memory tasks 22
3.2.2.1 Verbal working memory (VWM) tasks 22
3.2.2.2 Visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) tasks 26
3.2.3 Procedure 30
3.3 Results 30
3.4 Discussion 33
Chapter 4 Experiment 2 36
4.1 Purpose 36
4.2 Experiment 2-1 37
4.2.1. Methods 37
4.2.1.1 Participants 37
4.2.1.2 Design 37
4.2.1.3 Materials 37
4.2.1.4 Procedure 39
4.2.2 Results 41
4.3 Experiment 2-2 41
4.3.1 Methods 41
4.3.1.1 Participants 41
4.3.1.2 Design 42
4.3.1.3 Materials 42
4.3.1.4 Procedure 43
4.3.2 Results 43
4.4 Discussion 44
Chapter 5 Experiment 3 46
5.1 Purpose 46
5.2 Methods 47
5.2.1 Participants 47
5.2.2 Design 48
5.2.3 Materials 48
5.2.4 Equipment 49
5.2.5 Procedure 49
5.3 Results 50
5.4 Discussion 52
Chapter 6 General Discussion and Conclusion 54
6.1 Summary of research findings 54
6.2 Conclusion 54
6.3 Suggestions for further research 56
References 58
Appendix I: The instruction of the backward digit span task 63
Appendix II: The instruction of the externally ordered number generation task 63
Appendix III: The instruction of the self-ordered generation task 64
Appendix IV: The instruction of the reading span task 64
Appendix V: The instruction of the operation span task 65
Appendix VI: The instruction of the Corsi test 66
Appendix VII: The instruction of the Jigsaw puzzle task 67
Appendix VIII: The instruction of the passive matrix task 68
Appendix IX: The instruction of the pathway span task 69
Appendix X: The instruction of the rotated VPT task 70
Appendix XI: The materials of the backward digit span task 71
Appendix XII: The materials of the externally ordered number generation task 73
Appendix XIII: The materials of the reading span task 74
Appendix XIV: The materials of the operation span task 79
Appendix XV: The materials of the Jigsaw puzzle task 84
Appendix XVI: The materials of Experiment 2-1 88
Appendix XVII: The materials of Experiment 2-2 91
Appendix XVIII: The instruction of the character decomposition practice in experiment 2-1 95
Appendix XIX: The instruction of the primed word experiment (experiment 2-1) 96
Appendix XX: The instruction of the character decomposition practice in experiment 2-2 97
Appendix XXI: The instruction of the primed word experiment (experiment 2-2) 98
Appendix XXII: The materials of Experiment 3 (with word frequency per million in parenthesis) 99

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