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系統識別號 U0026-3008201021161100
論文名稱(中文) 文章字體與閱讀情緒之初探
論文名稱(英文) A Preliminary Research of Effects of Fonts in Articles to Reading Emotions
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 曾德平
研究生(英文) Te-Ping Tseng
電子信箱 to_owllight@hotmail.com
學號 p3696120
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 128頁
口試委員 指導教授-馬敏元
口試委員-何俊亨
口試委員-鄧怡莘
中文關鍵字 閱讀情緒  漢字情緒地圖  潛在語意分析  資訊質量  眼跡追蹤 
英文關鍵字 Reading Emotion  Chinese Fonts Emotional Map  Latent Semantic Analysis  Information Mass  Eye-tracking 
學科別分類
中文摘要 閱讀是處理書寫語言的過程。透過文字的紀錄與保存,讓先人的智慧得以流傳後世。閱讀也是人們感受美妙語句的行為。閱讀的過程也傳遞了情緒;除了內容表達的方式以外,適當的選擇字體對閱讀而言也是非常重要的。字體的利用彷彿是閱讀時的第一手消息,讓我們在第一時間的刺激下便能獲得直接的線索。本研究探討中文閱讀行為的過程中,字體將如何影響讀者的情緒。所探討的內容包含:(1)字體與字體之間在情緒因素下的關連;(2)字體在文章中所能提供的情緒強度線索如何;(3) 相符情緒意象的中文字體是否可幫助閱讀時的流暢度。針對以上三點,本研究安排兩階段實驗進行檢測。
首先;針對具有代表性特徵的漢字圖卡分別請九位受測者對不同情緒做九階李克尺度分群,再利用因素分析方式萃取出因素之共同變量。接著,再將所得的因素為軸做圖,可得漢字字體之情緒地圖。再以此圖為參考標準,尋找出適合的情緒字體,並分別定義為:1. 飛揚字體-使人感到輕鬆無壓力的字體;2. 伏抑字體-使人感到沉重與壓力的字體;3. 平和字體:指能穩定心情不致使波動的字體,並做為本實驗的標準字體。根據以上三種字體,對於文章方面亦選擇三種相對應情緒的文章:平和情緒文章,飛揚情緒文章,以及伏抑情緒文章,配合潛在語意分析的篩選出適合的實驗樣本。
最後,本研究安排情緒與眼動的實驗,邀請28位受試者被安排閱讀十篇短文,並於每篇之後回答短文所給予的綜合感受,以正、負、以及沒有情緒的方式給分。實驗完畢後,再經由重覆測量變異數分析可得以下結果:1. 在心理量測中,文章情緒因子與字體情緒因子在檢定後皆達顯著差異(分別為:F=44.376,p < 0.05 & F=4.196,p =0.027 < 0.05) ;2. 心理量測中,文章與字體的交互作用不顯著。意即於本研究安排之下並未發現讀者在閱讀不同字體與文章搭配下,其心理程度有交互的加成作用;3. 生理量測中,檢定總凝視時間的各項因子時皆不達顯著水準;4. 生理量測中,檢定平均凝視時間對於文章因子時有達顯著差異(F=5.725,p =0.010 < 0.05),其中平和文章對於其它兩種文章的凝視時間皆有顯著的較長,且達顯著水準(p =0.14< 0.05 & p=0.005<0.05)。意即閱讀平和文章時平均所需要的視認時間較其它兩種文章都要來的久;5. 生理量測中,檢定凝視點數的各項因子時皆不達顯著水準。
本研究的結論為:(1)字體間與情緒之關聯可架構出「漢字字體情緒地圖」。由圖中可得知影響漢字字體的情緒要素有二:1. 情緒同調性-心理狀態的一致性與2. 情緒抑揚性-心理狀態的壓力與助力。另外,對於有平面設計經驗的受測者(Avg. 4.56年)而言,「生氣」一詞之歧異度相當高,導致共同變量的萃取量不高。(2) 字體確實能影響讀者在閱讀時情緒上的判斷,並依字體所含的情緒不同有相對應的情緒反應;而字體與文章情緒的加成作用並不明顯。其原因可能反應著字體影響情緒之強度遠小於文章所能影響的強度。(3)字體在此次實驗中無法看出在閱讀時間上有明顯的改變,代表改變字體在此實驗的安排下並不能有效幫助讀者在閱讀上流暢度的提升。其原因可能反應在文體上的差異:無情緒文章的說明文,相較於有情緒的故事體所需的平均凝視時間仍明顯的費時(柯華葳等人,2005)。
本研究希望能夠找出字體與閱讀行為間有趣的關連,讓閱讀不只是閱讀,而是一種新的生活體驗,讓讀者能夠更身歷其境,引人入勝。
英文摘要 Reading is a process of handling written language. With keeping and recording by words, ancient knowledge could be spread out to future. Reading is also a behavior to feel the beautiful poems and literatures. Reading could also deliver emotions. Besides context expression, choosing fonts appropriately is also important. Font selection seems the first hand news for reading, which allows us to obtain direct clues. The research discussed how fonts could affect reading emotion detection during Chinese reading. Under the purpose, three objectives were discussed: (1) the relationship between Chinese fonts under emotion concerned; (2) the intensity of emotional clues that font can offer when reading; (3) whether corresponding Emotional images of Chinese fonts may increase reading speed. For purpose, two stage of experiment were arranged.
Firstly, nine subjects were asked to group 74 representative Chinese font cards by Likert scaling. Followed by factor analysis, the common factors were extracted. Continuely, obtained factors are used to plot Emotional Map of Chinese Fonts. Based on the map, three emotional fonts are defined and to be used in the next step: (1) Lifter – to lift your mood up with ease and pleasure; (2) Presser – to press you down, feeling with burden and pressure surrounded; (3) Pacifier – to comfort you without undulation, also the standard fonts of the next experiment. Meanwhile, three counterparts of the articles, with nine in total, were selected by LSA, in order to make combinations for experimental design.
Finally, eye-tracking technique was adopted to record the eye movement when reading. 28 subjects were arranged to read ten short paragraphs. After each paragraph, they were asked to answer a question of how they feel about the article. With repeated measures of ANOVA, the results are: 1. under mentally measurement, article emotional factors and font emotional factors are all reached significant level (with F=44.376, p < 0.05 & F=4.196, p =0.027 < 0.05, respectively); 2. Under mentally measurement, the interaction between article and font emotional factors didn’t reach significant level. In other words, articles with corresponding emotional fonts didn’t enhance how the readers feel, and vice versa. 3. During biological measurement, any kind of test couldn’t reach significant level with total gazing duration; 4. During biological measurement, test of article factors reached significant level under average gazing duration(F=5.725,p =0.010 < 0.05). Furthermore, pacific article was obviously taking longer time to read than other two kinds and reached significant level. (p =0.14< 0.05 & p=0.005<0.05). That is to say, average recognizing duration of reading pacific article was longer than the other two; 5. During biological measurement, testing of gazing points under each factor reached no significant level.
The conclusions of the study are: (1) chinese Emotional map were constructed under relation between each Chinese font. Besides, two factors of constructing Emotional map were obtained: 1. Emotion Conherence and 2. Emotion Work. Besides, for subjects with graphic design experience (with avg. 4.56years), the cognition difference of the phrase“Angry” is very high, which leads to low common factor extraction. (2) Fonts selection could affect reader judgements when reading, with corresponding emotion reaction. However, the interaction between font and article couldn’t reach significant level. The possible reason may reflect that the intensity of article was far more stronger than what fonts can provide. (3) changing fonts couldn’t increase speed on reading cognition hence could bring no help on reading fluency. The reason may lie on the fact of article type-exposition, also defined as Pacific article in this study- takes longer average gazing duration than story type article (Ko. et al., 2005)
The research was mainly interested in the connection between fonts and reading behavior. What’s more, to let reading is not just reading, but also a whole new life experience, but more enchanted, more amazing.
論文目次 中文摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 vi
表目錄 xiii
圖目錄 xiv
第一章 序論 1
1-1 研究背景與動機 1
1-2 研究目的 2
1-3研究範圍與限制 3
1-3-1 用字範圍 3
1-3-2 文章範圍 5
1-4 研究架構 5
第二章 文獻探討 8
2-1 情緒 8
2-2 閱讀行為 9
2-3 閱讀的情緒 11
2-3-1更新情緒狀態 13
2-3-2情緒線索的同調性 13
2-3-3描繪隱含情緒 14
2-4 閱讀與眼動 14
2-5 字體與情緒 16
2-5-1 漢字與情緒 16
2-5-2 字體特徵與情緒關係 16
2-6 文獻探討總結 18
第三章 研究方法與實驗 20
3-1 研究假設模型 21
3-1-1 模型一:無情緒文章中字體影響情緒模型 22
3-1-2 模型二:有情緒文章中字體影響情緒模型 23
3-2 情緒詞彙挑選 25
3-3 情緒字體挑選 26
3-4 文章樣本挑選 29
3-5 實驗步驟安排 31
第四章 實驗結果與分析 37
4-1 情緒字體挑選 37
4-1-1 因素分析與結果 37
4-1-2 情緒字體挑選 42
4-2 文章樣本挑選 46
4-2-1 平和情緒文章挑選 46
4-2-2 有情緒文章挑選 47
4-3 情緒文章眼動實驗結果 48
4-3-1 情緒填答心理量分析 49
4-3-2 眼動數據生理量分析 53
4-4 小結 63
第五章 討論 65
5-1 心理量測上的意義 65
5-2 眼動量測上的意義 67
5-2-1 文體難易度差異 67
5-2-2 內文難易度差異 77
5-3 綜合討論 83
5-3-1 閱讀頻率與字體效應 83
5-3-2 難易度與情緒 86
第六章 結論與建議 87
6-1 結論 87
6-2 建議 88
參考文獻: 90
附錄一 本次受測使用之華康字體(W數字代表字體筆劃粗細) 99
附錄二 字體因素分析得點 108
附錄三 平和情緒文章(含斷詞) 111
附錄四 有情緒文章-飛揚情緒(含斷詞) 113
附錄五 有情緒文章-伏抑情緒(含斷詞) 115
附錄六 受試者問卷 117
附錄七 文章閱讀心理量測計量 124
附錄八 眼動資料整理 125
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中文潛在語意分析(無日期), 2010年4月20日,取自中文潛在語意分析網頁:http://www.lsa.url.tw/

維基百科(2010),情緒,2010年 5月20日,取自維基百科,自由的百科全書網頁:http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%83%85%E6%84%9F?variant=zh-tw

心理衛生-適應心理學第二章(無日期),2010年8月20日,取自國立中央大學教學網網頁:http://webclass.ncu.edu.tw/~wang024/chap2/ch2-3.htm

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