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系統識別號 U0026-3007202015510000
論文名稱(中文) 偏遠地區應用太陽能進行水質淡化的可行性研究:印尼案例
論文名稱(英文) Feasibility Study of Solar-Powered Desalination Application in Remote Areas: Case of Indonesia
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 能源工程國際碩士學位學程
系所名稱(英) International Master Degree Program on Energy Engineering
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 維特迪
研究生(英文) Arsanto Ishadi Wibowo
電子信箱 arsantowibowo@gmail.com
學號 P06077016
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-張克勤
口試委員-鍾光民
口試委員-李聰盛
中文關鍵字 印尼  偏遠地區  太陽能  太陽蒸餾  水處理 
英文關鍵字 Indonesia  remote area  solar energy  solar distillation  water treatment system 
學科別分類
中文摘要 偏遠地區通常缺乏基本的清潔水供應服務。考慮到人口少,地理條件差和電力不足,本論文尋求一種利用太陽熱能/光電來產生清潔淡水的小型水處理系統來提供在偏遠地區使用並進行其可行性評估。這套所建議的小型水處理系統其特點是投資成本低,易於操作且維護需求少。印度尼西亞是其領土上擁有大量水資源,但對清潔淡水基本服務的覆蓋程度僅屬適中的國家之一,因此導致印度尼西亞易發生諸如痢疾之腹瀉類的水傳疾病。選擇濱海小島嶼的三個偏遠村莊和內陸的三個偏遠村莊來進行可行性評估,這些村莊反映了印度尼西亞在清潔水供應上的不利地區。
引入了兩個用水理念:理念一僅考慮飲用和烹飪用水,理念二還考慮盡加入水質要求較低的衛浴用水。另選出三個較成熟的利用太陽能蒸餾技術包括solar still, hybrid solar,和 Solar Humidification-Dehumidification (HDH)方法來產生乾淨的淡水。
利用回收年限以及淨現值方法來分析三個系統,分別用於單一家庭規模投資和社區投資。 結果以單一家庭為基礎的投資需要花費高昂的資本成本,其中solar still技術相對較為可行;若可以社區為開發基礎,solar HDH的這項技術相對較可行,區內每個家庭所需付出的成本也較以單一家庭為基礎的投資較低,但是還需要考慮一些其他優惠配套對策才能使這項投資具有投資吸引力。對於社區而言,與瓶裝水之售價相比,該系統提供的淨水投資價格仍是可觀,因為瓶裝水是這些地區現階段可以安全使用的飲用水,但仍遠遠高於一般城市使用的自來水。
英文摘要 Remote areas usually lack basic clean water services. Considering low population, poor geographical accessibility, and lack of electricity, a small-scaled water treatment system capable of producing clean fresh water associated with solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, which is characterized with low capital cost, easy operation and less need of maintenance, is employed in the techno-economic study. Indonesia is one of the countries which own a lot of water resources in their territories but have moderate coverage in water basic services. As a result, it is easy to cause waterborne diseases outbreaks such as diarrhea in Indonesia. Three remote villages in islets and three remote villages in inland, which reflect the disadvantage areas having clean water services of Indonesia, are chosen as the investigated locations in the study.
There are two scenarios of water demand discussed in the study. Scenario 1 considers single-grade water for drinking and food preparing, while Scenario 2 considers double-grade water including not only the water demand for drinking and food preparing but also the water demand with less strict quality for bathing, which is provided by mixing of the distilled water with the pre-treated water. Three available solar distillation technologies, including the solar still, hybrid solar and Solar Humidification-Dehumidification (HDH), are investigated in the study.
Both economic analyses in terms of payback period and NPV are employed for the feasibility study. Solar still is a feasible technology for most of household-based investment cases under either Scenario 1 or 2, although its yield is the lowest, among the three investigated technologies due to the shorter payback period (or higher NPV). In contrast, no case with solar HDH for the household-based investment can reach its payback before the system lifetime (assuming 15 years in the study). The performance of hybrid solar is in between these two technologies.
As far as the community-based investment is concerned, solar HDH is preferable among the three investigated technologies due to its shortest payback periods (around 10 and 6 years under Scenario 1 and 2, respectively) or highest positive NPVs. The selling water price obtained with hybrid solar has totally no potential to compete with that of the refilled bottle water ($18.15 / m3) adopted in the study.
論文目次 Table of Contents i
List of Figures iv
List of Tables vii
List of Abbreviations viii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.1.1 Water Needs 1
1.1.2 Water and Health 3
1.1.3 Water in rural area 4
1.2 Water Need in Indonesia 4
1.2.1 General Situation 4
1.2.2 Remote Areas in Indonesia 8
1.2.3 Case of Remote Villages in Island 9
1.2.4 Case of Coastal Villages in Islets 10
1.3 Water Requirement 10
1.4 Solar Resources in Indonesia 12
1.5 Objectives and Limitations 13
2 Water Treatment 15
2.1 Available Developed Technologies 15
2.1.1 Solar thermal distillation 19
2.1.1.1 Solar still technology 19
2.1.1.2 Solar humidification-dehumidification system 21
2.1.1.3 Solar thermal-photovoltaic coupled desalination system – named the hybrid solar system hereafter 24
2.1.2 Pre-treatment system 26
2.2 Energy Demand in Distillation Process from Brackish Water to Fresh Water 27
2.3 Two-Stage Water Treatment Process 28
3 Approach for Analysis 30
3.1 Estimate of Water Demand in Remote Village 30
3.2 Distilled Water Quality or Water Treatment System 31
3.3 Estimate of Energy Demand for Water Treatment System 32
3.4 Estimate of System Capacity and Component Sizing 33
3.5 Cost Estimate 35
3.6 Estimate of Payback Period 38
3.7 Estimate of Net Present Value 39
4 Results and Discussion 40
4.1 Locations Selected for Study 40
4.2 Water Demand 42
4.3 System Sizing 43
4.4 Levelized Water Cost 46
4.4.1 Household-Based Investment 47
4.4.2 Community-Based Investment 52
4.5 Economic Analysis 54
4.5.1 Payback Period 54
4.5.2 Parametric Sensitivity Analysis 59
4.5.3 Population Expenditure Concern 66
5 Conclusions and Recommendation for Future Work 68
5.1 Conclusion 68
5.2 Recommendations for Future Work 70
References 72
Appendix 1 Estimates of Daily Production Rates with the Solar Still and the Hybrid Solar System 80
Appendix 2 Water Flow Rates in Various Steps of the Water Treatment System 82
Appendix 3 Cost Breakdown of Investment for Household Base 83
Appendix 4 Cost Breakdown of Investment for Community Base 86
Appendix 5 Example of the Setting of Each Item in Calculation Procedure of Economic Analysis 89
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