||Feasibility Study of Solar-Powered Desalination Application in Remote Areas: Case of Indonesia
||International Master Degree Program on Energy Engineering
||Arsanto Ishadi Wibowo
water treatment system
引入了兩個用水理念：理念一僅考慮飲用和烹飪用水，理念二還考慮盡加入水質要求較低的衛浴用水。另選出三個較成熟的利用太陽能蒸餾技術包括solar still, hybrid solar,和 Solar Humidification-Dehumidification (HDH)方法來產生乾淨的淡水。
利用回收年限以及淨現值方法來分析三個系統，分別用於單一家庭規模投資和社區投資。 結果以單一家庭為基礎的投資需要花費高昂的資本成本，其中solar still技術相對較為可行；若可以社區為開發基礎，solar HDH的這項技術相對較可行，區內每個家庭所需付出的成本也較以單一家庭為基礎的投資較低，但是還需要考慮一些其他優惠配套對策才能使這項投資具有投資吸引力。對於社區而言，與瓶裝水之售價相比，該系統提供的淨水投資價格仍是可觀，因為瓶裝水是這些地區現階段可以安全使用的飲用水，但仍遠遠高於一般城市使用的自來水。
Remote areas usually lack basic clean water services. Considering low population, poor geographical accessibility, and lack of electricity, a small-scaled water treatment system capable of producing clean fresh water associated with solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, which is characterized with low capital cost, easy operation and less need of maintenance, is employed in the techno-economic study. Indonesia is one of the countries which own a lot of water resources in their territories but have moderate coverage in water basic services. As a result, it is easy to cause waterborne diseases outbreaks such as diarrhea in Indonesia. Three remote villages in islets and three remote villages in inland, which reflect the disadvantage areas having clean water services of Indonesia, are chosen as the investigated locations in the study.
There are two scenarios of water demand discussed in the study. Scenario 1 considers single-grade water for drinking and food preparing, while Scenario 2 considers double-grade water including not only the water demand for drinking and food preparing but also the water demand with less strict quality for bathing, which is provided by mixing of the distilled water with the pre-treated water. Three available solar distillation technologies, including the solar still, hybrid solar and Solar Humidification-Dehumidification (HDH), are investigated in the study.
Both economic analyses in terms of payback period and NPV are employed for the feasibility study. Solar still is a feasible technology for most of household-based investment cases under either Scenario 1 or 2, although its yield is the lowest, among the three investigated technologies due to the shorter payback period (or higher NPV). In contrast, no case with solar HDH for the household-based investment can reach its payback before the system lifetime (assuming 15 years in the study). The performance of hybrid solar is in between these two technologies.
As far as the community-based investment is concerned, solar HDH is preferable among the three investigated technologies due to its shortest payback periods (around 10 and 6 years under Scenario 1 and 2, respectively) or highest positive NPVs. The selling water price obtained with hybrid solar has totally no potential to compete with that of the refilled bottle water ($18.15 / m3) adopted in the study.
Table of Contents i
List of Figures iv
List of Tables vii
List of Abbreviations viii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.1.1 Water Needs 1
1.1.2 Water and Health 3
1.1.3 Water in rural area 4
1.2 Water Need in Indonesia 4
1.2.1 General Situation 4
1.2.2 Remote Areas in Indonesia 8
1.2.3 Case of Remote Villages in Island 9
1.2.4 Case of Coastal Villages in Islets 10
1.3 Water Requirement 10
1.4 Solar Resources in Indonesia 12
1.5 Objectives and Limitations 13
2 Water Treatment 15
2.1 Available Developed Technologies 15
2.1.1 Solar thermal distillation 19
220.127.116.11 Solar still technology 19
18.104.22.168 Solar humidification-dehumidification system 21
22.214.171.124 Solar thermal-photovoltaic coupled desalination system – named the hybrid solar system hereafter 24
2.1.2 Pre-treatment system 26
2.2 Energy Demand in Distillation Process from Brackish Water to Fresh Water 27
2.3 Two-Stage Water Treatment Process 28
3 Approach for Analysis 30
3.1 Estimate of Water Demand in Remote Village 30
3.2 Distilled Water Quality or Water Treatment System 31
3.3 Estimate of Energy Demand for Water Treatment System 32
3.4 Estimate of System Capacity and Component Sizing 33
3.5 Cost Estimate 35
3.6 Estimate of Payback Period 38
3.7 Estimate of Net Present Value 39
4 Results and Discussion 40
4.1 Locations Selected for Study 40
4.2 Water Demand 42
4.3 System Sizing 43
4.4 Levelized Water Cost 46
4.4.1 Household-Based Investment 47
4.4.2 Community-Based Investment 52
4.5 Economic Analysis 54
4.5.1 Payback Period 54
4.5.2 Parametric Sensitivity Analysis 59
4.5.3 Population Expenditure Concern 66
5 Conclusions and Recommendation for Future Work 68
5.1 Conclusion 68
5.2 Recommendations for Future Work 70
Appendix 1 Estimates of Daily Production Rates with the Solar Still and the Hybrid Solar System 80
Appendix 2 Water Flow Rates in Various Steps of the Water Treatment System 82
Appendix 3 Cost Breakdown of Investment for Household Base 83
Appendix 4 Cost Breakdown of Investment for Community Base 86
Appendix 5 Example of the Setting of Each Item in Calculation Procedure of Economic Analysis 89
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