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系統識別號 U0026-3007202013103600
論文名稱(中文) 筆記媒介與其使用習慣對記憶表現的影響
論文名稱(英文) The Effect of Note Taking Media and Habit on Memory Performance
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 心理學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Psychology
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 王妤
研究生(英文) Yu Wang
學號 U76064054
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-林君昱
口試委員-鄭仕坤
口試委員-劉効樺
中文關鍵字 筆記  習慣  學習  手寫  打字  電子筆記  紙本筆記  認知資源 
英文關鍵字 note-taking  handwriting  typewriting  notebook  laptop  learning  habit  cognitive load 
學科別分類
中文摘要 人們經常仰賴外部載體來儲存重要資訊,課堂以及講座是常見的在短時間內提供大量重要資訊的情境,大多數的人會選擇做筆記來暫時將這些資訊儲存於外部。隨著數位時代的來臨,學生做筆記的媒介也逐漸由傳統的紙筆筆記轉為電子化的打字筆記,由於兩種筆記媒介在進行筆記時存在著巨大的動作與形式差異,因此許多研究者開始探討使用紙本筆記與打字筆記這兩種記錄資訊的工具,是否會有不同的記憶表現,卻一直沒有一致的結論,分別支持手寫筆記、打字筆記,甚至沒有發現兩種方法有顯著差異的研究結果都有。我們認為先前研究得到不一致結果的關鍵原因在於,使用習慣筆記媒介與使用不習慣筆記媒介的認知負荷有所差異,導致剩餘可放在課堂學習上的認知資源不同,最終影響記憶表現。本研究即在探討筆記媒介對記憶表現影響的基礎上,加入筆記習慣的變項,想瞭解筆記媒介與筆記習慣之間是否有交互作用,也就是課堂學習與進行筆記這兩項任務的認知資源消耗,是否是筆記媒介影響記憶表現的關鍵。我們在實驗一中發現手寫筆記比打字筆記有更好的記憶表現,以及顯著的筆記媒介與筆記習慣之間的交互作用。為了進一步探討筆記媒介與筆記習慣之間的交互作用,我們在實驗二中設計了參與者更習慣的情境,期望再次看到交互作用與更多的簡單主要效果。然而,實驗二中主效果與交互作用都未顯著,為此我們進行了實驗三,以確認實驗一與實驗二結果的差異是否來自於參與者觀看影片的總時長。從實驗三的結果,我們得知在影片長度與實驗一相同的情況下,筆記媒介對記憶表現的影響有顯著的差異,但影片較短如實驗二時,顯著差異就會消失。本研究得知不同筆記媒介之間確實對記憶表現存在著影響,人們在使用自己更為習慣的筆記媒介時會有更好的記憶表現,但是這個影響只會在課程較長或是難度較高的情況下出現,因此,當課程較長時,選擇自己習慣的筆記媒介更有助於課程的學習,而當課程時長較短,或沒有那麼困難時,可以自由的使用各種筆記媒介,並不會對記憶表現有所影響,甚至可以將簡單的課堂做為練習新的筆記媒介的機會,讓自己多熟悉不同的筆記媒介,因為習慣的筆記媒介能讓我們有更好的記憶表現,因此習慣越多種筆記媒介,可以讓自己在課堂學習上更為彈性有利。
英文摘要 As the digital age is coming, the method students choose to take notes gradually changes from handwriting in a notebook to typing on a laptop. Hence, researchers start to concern about whether the modality used for note-taking has an effect on the efficiency of learning. However, whether note-taking media affect learning performance or not remains unclear. Because people are skillful at their habitual behaviors, we consider habit as a factor which would interact with note-taking media. In three studies, we had participants watched three videos consecutively, meanwhile taking notes by hand, by typing on a computer and not taking notes at all, respectively. We collected the habitual note-taking media of each participant and their memory performance on the videos. An ANOVA analysis was performed to compare participants’ memory performance on different note-taking media. In study 1, participants had better memory performance while using their habitual note- taking media. In study 2, the note-taking media x note-taking media habit interaction disappeared. Subsequently, we found total videos watching time was the key to whether interaction effects on memory performance occur in study 3. The findings of our three studies showed that people would remember more and learn better using their habitual note-taking media when lecture time is longer.
論文目次 摘要 I
致謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章、 緒論 1
第二章、 文獻探討 2
第一節、 外部記憶 2
第二節、 數位時代對人們存取資訊的影響 3
第三節、 電子筆記與手寫筆記的過去研究 4
一、 筆記型電腦對課堂影響的相關探討 5
二、 針對不同筆記媒介對於記憶影響的研究 8
三、 手寫筆記與打字筆記對記憶資訊之影響有所差異的可能原因 10
第四節、 認知資源、認知負荷與習慣 12
第五節、 研究目的與假設 16
第三章、 實驗一 19
第一節、 研究方法 19
一、 實驗參與者 19
二、 實驗設計 20
三、 實驗儀器 20
四、 實驗材料 20
五、 實驗流程 21
第二節、 結果 23
一、 分析方法 23
二、 結果 23
第三節、 討論 29
第四章、 實驗二 36
第一節、 研究方法 36
一、 實驗參與者 37
二、 實驗設計 37
三、 實驗儀器 38
四、 實驗材料 38
五、 實驗流程 39
第二節、 結果 40
一、 分析方法 40
二、 結果 42
第三節、 討論 44
一、 實驗二討論 44
二、 實驗一與實驗二統計上的比較 46
第五章、 實驗三 53
第一節、 研究方法 53
一、 實驗參與者 54
二、 實驗設計 54
三、 實驗儀器 54
四、 實驗材料 55
五、 實驗流程 55
第二節、 結果 57
一、 分析方法 57
二、 結果 57
第三節、 討論 59
一、 實驗三討論 59
二、 實驗三與實驗一、實驗二的比較 61
第六章、 綜合討論 65
參考文獻 77
附錄 83
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