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系統識別號 U0026-3007201917033100
論文名稱(中文) 地理物件式影像分析法對隧道裂隙偵測研究
論文名稱(英文) Tunnel cracks detection via Geographical Object-based Image Analysis
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資源工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Resources Engineering
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 李雅君
研究生(英文) Ya-Chun Li
學號 N46064086
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 101頁
口試委員 指導教授-余騰鐸
口試委員-潘以文
口試委員-楊名
口試委員-吳建宏
口試委員-林志平
中文關鍵字 點雲  隧道  裂隙檢測  影像處理  主成分分析  物件式影像分析  地理物件式影像分析 
英文關鍵字 Point cloud  Tunnel  Crack detection  Image processing  PCA  OBIA  GEOBIA 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隧道的襯砌異狀檢測採用了許多技術,其中以光達為最有效裂縫的辨識,光達所獲得的點雲可以手動處理但資料量極為龐大。自動化數據處理在確定裂縫的存在時無法提供足夠的功能;此外,在目前的裂縫辨識軟體中,大多以影像處理或深度學習法進行辨識,在這樣的模式下,需耗費長時間訓練及檢測且準確率僅有80%左右,因此如何改善光達在裂縫辨識上所面臨的問題為一重要課題。
為了提高隧道襯砌中點雲的自動檢測效率,本研究建立了一套程序,襯砌點雲經濾除、修剪並挑選明顯裂縫處轉存為影像型式,再以影像處理搭配主成分分析法、物件式影像分析、地理物件式影像分析等三種方法進行裂縫影像辨識,接著將辨識結果進行裂縫量測,獲得的量測結果再與實際大小比較,以瞭解誤差情形。本研究使用的襯砌型式分別為混凝土式及磚式之襯砌隧道,經三種檢測法辨識後,依據混淆矩陣衍生的準確率、錯誤率、誤報率、漏報率及KAPPA進行評估。
三種方法中,以地理物件式影像分析的結果最為良好,原因是以自動化決定分割尺度將影像分割,而分類除了像元外還納入其它屬性,比起像元式分類能有更佳的辨識能力,其處理程序為影像分割、物件初步訓練、知識模型建立及規則設置,透過物件初步訓練與建立知識模型進行第二次的分類,來提高分類結果。兩種襯砌的辨識結果,準確率皆達95%以上、Kappa皆達0.85以上。在量測方面,辨識結果的長度最大誤差約4%-34%、寬度最大誤差約23%-88%,檢測最小寬度為1.1公釐。
英文摘要 The inspection of tunnel lining conditions is have been carried out with many technologies, among which LiDAR is the most efficiency method for crack detection. However, it collects an immense amount of point cloud data, which could be handled manually. Automatic data processing didn’t provide enough function in determining the existence of cracks. Moreover, a majority of current tunnel crack detection software use image processing or deep learning to detect abnormalities. These methods require extensive training and time-consuming detection for accuracy of only approximately 80%. Therefore, it is an important issue to ameliorate the problems faced by LiDAR in tunnel crack detection. To improve the efficiency of auto-detection via point clouds form at tunnel linings, a combined routine is established. The point cloud data are then filtered and cropped for visibly discernible cracks to translate into image format. Image recognition for crack detection was then performed by combining image processing with three detection methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA), and Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA). Crack measurements were produced from these image recognition results and then compared with the actual measurements to determine the level of error. The types of tunnel lining examined in this study are concrete tunnel linings and brick tunnel linings, which were evaluated using the accuracy rate, error rate, false-positive rate, false-negative rate, and Kappa coefficient after recognition via the three detection methods. From the three applied methods, GEOBIA produced the best results. This is because of its automated selection of the scale of image segmentation, along with its image recognition capability that outperforms pixel-based classification due to its implementation of elements in addition to pixels. The identification results of the two types of lining have consistent accuracy rates of over 95% and Kappa coefficients of over 0.85. In terms of measurements, the maximum error of length in the recognition results was between 4–34% and the maximum error of width was between 23–88%; the minimum width detected was 1.1 mm.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 VI
目錄 VII
圖目錄 X
表目錄 XII
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 研究流程 3
第2章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 裂縫檢測 5
2.2 隧道檢測 10
2.3 影像分類 14
2.4 雷射掃描儀介紹 14
2.4.1 商用系統介紹 17
2.4.2 光達系統之隧道應用 18
2.5 檢測方法簡介 21
2.5.1 主成分分析 21
2.5.2 物件式影像分析 22
2.5.3 地理物件式影像分析 23
第3章 研究方法 25
3.1 研究資料與工具 25
3.1.1 研究資料說明 25
3.1.2 研究工具 25
3.2 點雲初步處理 26
3.2.1 混凝土式壁面 26
3.2.2 磚式壁面 27
3.3 主成分分析 31
3.3.1 影像前處理 31
3.3.2 影像處理 33
3.3.3 主成分分析 35
3.3.4 特徵值辨識 37
3.4 物件式影像分析 37
3.4.1 影像分割 38
3.4.2 區塊分類 39
3.5 地理物件式影像分析 41
3.5.1 影像分割 41
3.5.2 區塊分類 42
3.5.3 提取特徵屬性 42
3.5.4 知識分類模型 43
3.5.5 設置分類規則 45
3.6 準確度評估 46
3.7 裂縫量測 48
3.7.1 主成分分析之裂縫量測 49
3.7.2 物件式影像分析、地理物件式影像分析之裂縫量測 51
第4章 研究成果及討論 54
4.1 主成分分析檢測結果 54
4.1.1 灰階化 54
4.1.2 對比增強 55
4.1.3 影像平滑 56
4.1.4 底帽變換 57
4.1.5 二值化 57
4.1.6 物件聯通 59
4.1.7 去除微小物件 59
4.1.8 主成分分析 60
4.1.9 特徵值辨識 61
4.1.10 檢測結果 62
4.2 物件式影像分析檢測結果 66
4.2.1 影像分割 66
4.2.2 物件分類 67
4.2.3 檢測結果 68
4.3 地理物件式影像分析 71
4.3.1 影像分割 71
4.3.2 物件分類 72
4.3.3 建立知識分類模型 73
4.3.4 設置分類規則 74
4.3.5 檢測結果 75
4.4 裂縫量測 78
4.4.1 主成分分析 78
4.4.2 物件式影像分析、地理物件式影像分析 78
4.5 討論 80
4.5.1 各檢測法比較 80
4.5.2 特徵因子 81
4.5.3 光達解析度 84
4.5.4 檢測結果探討 87
4.5.5 裂縫量測誤差探討 88
第5章 結論與建議 89
5.1 結論 89
5.2 建議 90
參考文獻 91
附錄 96
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