||An Integrated Model for Continued Online Banking Services Usage Intention: System Usability and System Trust Perspective
||Department of Business Administration
Online Banking Services
Continuous Usage Intention
Technology Acceptance Model
The high availability of Internet technology has facilitated the presence of various Internet-based services, such as online travel services, online shopping, online auctions, online financial service, and so forth. Owing to the development of Hi-Tech asynchronous technologies and secured electronic transaction technologies, most banks have come forward to use online banking systems as an effective medium for transacting business and communicating messages about products and services. Online banking can be considered as one of the most prominent examples of the application of Internet technology in transaction-based e-service. The pervasiveness of the Internet enables individuals to perform various financial activities regardless the spatial and temporal limitations through online banking services (OBSs) systems.
The author describes the research motivations regarding undertaking the study of this dissertation from academic and practical viewpoints respectively. In terms of academic motivation, several theoretical perspectives have though been developed and proposed in an attempt to explore and understand what affects users’ information system continuance usage intention comparatively little effort has, however, been devoted so far to research concerned with the continued usage of OBSs. The academic motivation of present investigation is aims to fill this research gap.
As for the practical motivation, customers’ continued use is considered to be a better measurement for evaluating the implementation of a certain technology. From relationship marketing management perspective, encouraging existing users continue their usage for extended periods of time is a necessary strategic weapon for sustaining a firm’s competitive advantage in its markets and for increasing the value of a firm’s market assets. During the past years, most OBSs practitioners have invested a considerable amount of available resources and incentives into the expansion of customer base, thus attempting to contribute to their competitive advantages and financial performance. In practice, however, there is more or less gap between the resources invested and the potential economic benefits achieved. One plausible reason that can be suggested for this phenomenon is that there is a negative disconfirmation between users’ pre-adoption expectations and perceived performance after their prior usage experience.
These motivate the author to develop following four probing questions in order to facilitate problem analysis.
1. What are the important ingredients of system usability and how they affect jointly users’ intention to continue using OBSs?
2. What are the main factors of system trust and how they influence collectively users’ intention to continue to use OBSs?
3. What factors determining users’ satisfaction level with OBSs?
4. Whether and how the users’ satisfaction level impacts their continuance intention of using OBSs?
The proposed hypotheses were first tested empirically with a field survey involving 341 current individual OBSs users from seven domestic bank branches in Taiwan by using LISREL 8.50 statistical software. The major empirical results are presents as follows.
1. User satisfaction exerts a significant positive impact on continuous usage intention, denoting that the more satisfied the users are with OBSs, the more likely the users will continue to use the services.
2. User satisfaction level with the OBSs was determined primarily by his/her post-adoption perceptions about the usefulness of the services.
3. Of all the proposed antecedents of continuous usage intention, PU is the most predominant factor in determining users’ continued OBSs usage intention.
4. PEOU displayed less association with continuous usage intention, meaning that the “ease of use” may no longer be the customers’ primary concern in making their decisions about continued or discontinued OBSs usage. PEOU however has a significant positive total effect on continuous usage intention, signifying that the role of PEOU in facilitating customers’ continued OBSs usage intention should not be underestimated or even neglected.
5. The effect of PU on user satisfaction is heavily higher than that of PEOU, suggesting that the customers are likely to place more weight upon the efficiency of the OBSs system in their satisfaction judgment.
6. Both PU and PEOU were influenced significantly by perceived compatibility. This result further demonstrates the necessity of considering the perceived compatibility in the research of users’ continued OBSs usage intention.
7. System trust has a significant positive influence on PU and PEOU, implicating that the users will more likely to perceive the OBSs as useful and easy to use if the OBSs setting was perceived to be trustworthy.
8. System trust was affected positively and significantly by situational normality and structural assurance, meaning that high perception regarding situational normality and structural assurance will lead to increased trust in OBSs setting.
Furthermore, a multi-group analysis on two subsamples according to their OBSs usage experience and frequency revealed that there are different concerns and priorities between skilled users group and less skilled users group.
Give that the sample of this research is collected from a particular industry in Taiwan, the generalizability of the finding may be limited. However, the comprehensiveness and representativeness of the research sample used for empirical investigation is a major strength of this research.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES XVII
LIST OF FIGURES XX
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.1.1 The Benefits of Online Banking Services 2
1.1.2 Online Banking Services in Taiwan 3
1.2 Research Motivations 4
1.2.1 Academic Motivation 5
1.2.2 Practical Motivation 9
1.3 Research Aims and Objectives 10
1.4 Outline of the Dissertation 12
Chapter Two Review of Related Literature 14
2.1 Technology Acceptance Model 14
2.1.1 The Theory of Reasoned Action 14
2.1.2 The Original Technology Acceptance Model 18
2.1.3 The Parsimonious Technology Acceptance Model 19
2.1.4 The Extended Models of Technology Acceptance Model 21
2.2 Expectation-Confirmation Theory and Expectation-Confirmation Model of Continued IT Usage 28
2.2.1 Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Model 28
2.2.2 Expectation-Confirmation Theory 29
2.2.3 Expectation-Confirmation Model of Continued IT Usage 35
2.2.4 The Differences between ECM Paradigm and ECM-IT 38
2.2.5 Extended ECM-IT 38
2.3 Consumer Satisfaction Theory 41
2.4 System Trust 42
Chapter Three Research Model and Hypotheses Development 46
3.1 The Hypothesized Effect of User Satisfaction on Continuous Usage Intention 46
3.2 The Hypothesized Effects of Confirmation on User Satisfaction and PU 48
3.3 The Hypothesized Effects of System Usability on Continuous Usage Intention 50
3.4 The Hypothesized Effects of PU and PEOU on User Satisfaction 53
3.5 The Proposed Interaction among the Components of System Usability 54
3.6 The Hypothesized Effect of System Trust on Continuous Usage Intention 55
3.7 The Hypothesized Effects of Situation Normality and Structural Assurance on System Trust 56
3.8 The Hypothesized Effects of System Trust on PU and PEOU 58
3.9 The Hypothesized Effect of Situational Normality on PEOU 59
Chapter Four Methodology 63
4.1 Instrument Development 64
4.2 Pretest and Pilot Test 67
4.3 Sampling Procedure, Data Collection and Sample Characteristics 72
Chapter Five Empirical Analysis and Presentation of Findings 88
5.1 Descriptive Statics 89
5.2 Measurement Reliability and Validity 91
5.3 Measurement Model Assessment 101
5.4 Structural Model Assessment and Hypotheses Testing 120
5.5 Discussion of the Implications of the Research Findings 126
5.6 Multi-group analysis and discussion of the findings 132
Chapter Six Discussion and Conclusion 146
6.1 Limitations and avenues for future research 146
6.2 Conclusion and contributions 149
Appendix: Questionnaire in Chinese 186
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