系統識別號 U0026-3007201403313100
論文名稱(中文) 社群網站特性影響社會運動方案管理之研究
論文名稱(英文) A Study of Social Networking Sites’ Influence on Social Movement Programme Management
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Information Management
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 陳玉珮
研究生(英文) Yu-Pei Chen
學號 R76011024
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 103頁
口試委員 指導教授-謝佩璇
中文關鍵字 方案管理  社群網站  社會運動 
英文關鍵字 Programme management  Social network sites  Social movement 
中文摘要   網際網路的快速發展,延伸世界各地疆界。近年興起的社群網站,由於串聯迅速且連結弱勢或潛在的關係,更成為人際溝通最新科技工具。人與人之間容易產生關係,除了刺激社會學習、增強社會信任,更能鼓勵公民和政治參與,成為團體行動達成共同目標最有效率的溝通工具。社會運動者則可利用社群網站,將議題內容以低成本的方式傳播給較遠的群眾。社群網站可視為組織推動變革時的社會媒體,動員團體行動時強而有力的工具。以往文獻只專注在社會運動或網路社群活動,少有文獻結合社群網站的社會運動。若將社會運動視為方案,也從未有文獻透過方案管理的角度來觀察社群網站的社會運動。
英文摘要 The Internet has rapidly developed, and has extended the boundary of the world. Recently, social network sites (SNSs) have become the newest technological tool of human communication. SNSs can quickly establish a linkage or develop a relationship among minorities and remote relationship. Human beings can find easy to inspire each other in social learning, enhance social trust, and encourage social or political engagement. People involved in the social movement are thus able to utilize the SNSs to disseminate the content of controversial issues to others in remote sites in a lower cost. In other words, the SNSs can be regarded as social media as an organization promotes transformation and the most powerful communication tools which help group take actions to achieve their common goals. In the literature, prior studies only focus on social movement or the events occurred in the network sites, instead of exploring how social movements are operated on the SNSs. If a social movement is considered as a programme, it is worth to further explore social movements on the social networks from the perspective of programme management.
This study considers a social movement as a programme, and combines the concepts of Resource Mobilization Theory and Integrated Programme Management Performance Model to explore three global issues which have ever formed large-scale social movements (i.e., environmental movement, gender movement, and human right movement) to establish a research model which demonstrates the features of SNSs for social movements. The model is divided into project and value dimensions, containing six sub-dimensions/stages (i.e., planning, control, execution, sense-making, ideation and evaluation) to describe how tangible and intangible features of the SNSs are weighted differently in term of importance when operating and managing social movement programmes during the processes of programme management. Therefore, based on the fundamental knowledge of programme management, this study intends to explore how social movements are operated on the SNSs as well as to examine how different features of SNSs are weighted differently in term of level of importance on the operation of the social movement programmes.
The purposes of this study are three folds: to investigate different features of the SNSs for social movements, and to identify the model of operating and managing social movement programme; to establish a research model to demonstrate how the features of SNSs influence the operation and management of social movement programmes; to give advice to people who are promoting social movement programme management on SNSs. The scope of this study is in Taiwan context. Three Taiwanese social movements (i.e., anti-nuclear movement, gay rights movement, and Chung-Chiu Hung event) are promoted not only in a form of strike but also produced lots of echoes on SNSs. Each of them respectively reflects three global issues as well.
This study contributes online questionnaires on Facebook and PTT. The questionnaires are divided into basic information and social movement programme. The programme includes six stages and the participants compare each two tangible and intangible features. This study collects 52 data samples and utilizes AHP to analyze questionnaires. There are 16 valid questionnaires. As a result, this study finds the average rank of tangible features is content recognition, instant update and personalization and the rank of intangible features is community-oriented, interactivity, relational link, beyond time and space and sentimental content.
論文目次 摘要 ii
致謝 v
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research background and motivation 1
1.2 Research Purposes and Problems 8
1.3 Research Scope and Limitation 9
1.4 Research Processes 9
Chapter 2 Literature Review 12
2.1 The features of social network sites (SNS) 12
2.2 Social movements on social network sites 17
2.2.1 The related theories and studies on social movements 20
2.2.2 Social movements in Taiwan and other countries 28
2.3 The applications of PPM on social movements 33
Chapter 3 Research Methodologies 44
3.1 Research model 44
3.2 Research participants and the research scope 48
3.3 Research tool development - Questionnaire for AHP 50
3.4 Data collection and analysis methods 52
Chapter 4 Research results 58
4.1 Data collection period and sample size 58
4.2 AHP Analysis 59
Chapter 5 Conclusions 71
5.1 Discussions 71
5.2 Contributions 75
5.2.1 Theoretical Implication 75
5.2.2 Practical Implication 78
5.3 Limitation and Future Research 80
Reference 83
Appendix 1 92
Appendix 2 98
參考文獻 大埔事件(民102年10月11日)。維基百科,自由的百科全書。取自 from http://en.wikipedia.org.
反媒體巨獸青年聯盟(民101年11月25日)。拒黑手、反壟斷,要新聞自由!──壹傳媒簽約前夕,占領行政院行動。苦勞網。取自 http://www.coolloud.org.tw
台灣同志遊行聯盟(民102年10月7日)。【團體】[團體報名] 2013已報名隊伍公布 與 注意事項。取自:http://twpride.org/
洪仲丘事件(民102年10月7日)。維基百科,自由的百科全書。取自: http://en.wikipedia.org.
野草莓運動(民102年8月14日)。維基百科,自由的百科全書。取自 from http://en.wikipedia.org.
野草莓運動(民97年11月13日)【部落格文字資料】。野草莓運動要求政府主動調查並說明涉及執法過當之案件。取自 http://action1106.blogspot.com/2008/11/blog-post_1984.html
陳怡靜、陳曉宜、陳泓達(民102年1月2日)。青年聯盟// 反媒體壟斷 拒中國宰制。自由時報電子報。取自 http://www.libertytimes.com.tw
2013 protests in Turkey. (December 8, 2013). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrived from http://en.wikipedia.org.
Aberle, D. F. (1966). The Peyote Religion among the Navaho. Chicago: Aldine.
Adbusters. (July 13, 2011) #OCCUPYWALLSTREET. Adbusters. Retrieved from https://www.adbusters.org/
Alloway, T. P., & Alloway, R. G. (2012). The impact of engagement with social networking sites (SNSs) on cognitive skills. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1748-1754.
Almeida, P. D., & Lichbach, M. I. (2003). To the internet, from the internet: Comparative media coverage of transnational protests. Mobilization, 8(3), 249-272.
Amichai-Hamburger, Y. (2005). Personality and the Internet. In Y. Amichai-Hamburger (Ed.), The social net: Human behavior in cyberspace (pp. 27–55). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Barak, A. (2009). Internet and well-being. In Y. Amichai-Hamburger (Ed.), Technology and Well-being (pp. 34–76). Cambridge University Press.
Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Vinitzky, G. (2010). Social network use and personality. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1289-1295.
Amichai-Hamburger, Y., Wainapel, G., & Fox, S. (2002). On the Internet no one knows I’m an introvert: Extroversion, neuroticism, and Internet interaction. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 2, 125-128.
Anderson, B. (2000). Computers and social networks. Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 19(1).
Anti-nuclear movement. (2013, December 6). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrived from http://en.wikipedia.org.
Antocia, A., Sabatini, F., & Sodini, M. (2012). See you on Facebook! A framework for analyzing the role of computer-mediated interaction in the evolution of social capital. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 41, 541-547.
Baek, K., Holton, A., Harp, D., & Yaschur, C. (2011). The links that bind: Uncovering novel motivations for linking on Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(6), 2243-2248.
Bargh, J. A., & McKenna, K. Y. A. (2004). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychol, 55(1), 573-590.
Bartlett, J. (2002). Managing programmes of business change. 1st ed. Wokingham: Project Manager Today Publications.
Becker, M. (1999). Project or program management? PM Network, 13(10). Drexel Hill, PA: PMI Communications.
Benford, R. D., & Snow, D. A. (2000). Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 611-639.
Bennett, W. L. (2003). Communicating global activism: Strengths and vulnerabilities of networked politics. Information, Communication & Society, 6(2), 143-168.
Berrett, D. (October 16, 2011). Intellectual roots of Wall St. protest lie in academe. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/
Bhuiyan, S. I. (2011). Social media and its effectiveness in the political reform movement in Egypt. Middle East Media Educator, 1(1), 12-20.
Blumer, H. G. (1969). Collective behavior. In Lee, A. M. (Eds). Principles of Sociology. New York, NY: Barnes and Noble Books, pp. 65-121.
Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2008). Social network sites: Definition, history and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13, 210-230.
Burke, M., Marlow, C., & Lento, T. (2010, April). Social network activity and social well-being. ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, GA, USA, 1909-1912.
Burke, R. (2003). Project management planning and control techniques. Wiley.
Castells, M. (1997). The power of identity. New York, NY: Blackwell.
CCTA. (1995). Management of programme risk. HSMO.
Cheung, S. O., Suen, H. C. H., & Cheung, K. K. W. (2004). PPMS: A web-based construction project performance monitoring system. Automation in Construction, 13(3), 361-376.
Chou, J-S., Chen, H-M., Hou, C-C., & Lin, C-W. (2010). Visualized EVM system for assessing project performance. Automation in Construction, 19, 596-607.
Click, A., & Petit, J. (2010). Social networking and Web 2.0 in information literacy. The International Information & Library Review, 42, 137-142.
Cohen, J. (1985). Strategy or identity: New theoretical paradigms and contemporary social movements. Social Research, 52, 663-716.
Cronauer, K. (2004). Activism and the internet: A socio-political analysis of how the use of electronic mailing lists affects mobilization in social movement organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Cronin, M. (2009). 9 Crucial UI features of social media and networking sites. Retrived from http://www.smashingmagazine.com/
Diani, M. (1992). The concept of social movement. Sociological Review, 40, 1-25.
Diani, M. (2000). Social movement networks: Virtual and real. Information, Communication and Society, 3(3), 386-401.
Dube, R. (2007). Characteristics of social networks. Retreived from http://socialnetworking.lovetoknow.com/
Edwards, B & McCarthy, J, D. (2003). Resources and social movement mobilization. In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, ed. David A. Snow, Sarah A. Soule, and Hanspeter Kriesi, 116-152. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9780631226697_chunk_g97806312266977
Elola, J. (May 22, 2011). El 15 -M sacude el sistema. Retrieved from http://elpais.com/
European Committee for Standardization, CEN (2000). Value management, European standard BS EN 12973:2000. Chiswick: British Standards Institution (BSI).
E-programme. (2007). Programme management. Retrieved from: http://www.e-programme.com/
Ferns, D. C. (1991). Developments in programme management. International Journal of Project Management, 9(3), 148-156.
Frank, B. H. (2014). Facebook reports $2.6B in revenue, 1.23B monthly active users, beating estimates. Retrieved from http://www.geekwire.com/
Freeman, J. (1979). Resource mobilization and strategy: A model for analyzing social movement organization actions. In M. N. Zald & J. D. McCarthy (Eds.), Dynamics of social movement (pp. 167-189). Cambridge, MA: Winthrop.
Garrett, R. K. (2006). Protest in an information society: A review of literature on social movements and new ICTs. Information, Communication & Society, 9(2), 202-224.
Gamson, W. A. (1990). The strategy of social protest. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Gareis, R. (1999). May the PMBOKTM guide be challenged by a new project management paradigm? Proceedings of the 30th PMI Seminars and Symposium, PMI HQ Publishing, Newton Square, PA.
Gilbert, E., & Karahalios, K. (2009). Predicting tie strength with social media. International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Symposium conducted at the meeting of CHI of Boston, MA, USA.
Gray, R. J. (1997). Alternative approaches to programme management. International Journal of Project Management, 15(1), 5-9.
Greengard, S. (2009). The first internet president. Communications of the ACM, 52(2), 16–18.
Grundy, T. (1998). Strategy implementation and project management. International Journal of Project Management, 16(1), 43-50.
Gueorguieva, V. (2008). Voters, MySpace, and YouTube: The impact of alternative communication channels on the 2006 election cycle and beyond. Social Science Computer Review, 26(3), 288–300.
Haloush, H. A., & Malkawi, B. H. (2008). Internet characteristics and online alternative dispute resolution. Harvard Negotiation Law Review, 13, 327-348.
Hamburger, Y. A., & Ben-Artzi, E. (2000). The relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and the different uses of the Internet. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 441–449.
Hara, N., & Estrada, Z. C. (2005). Analyzing the mobilization of grassroots activities via the internet: A case study. Journal of Information Science, 31(6), 503–514.
Hara, N., & Huang, B. Y. (2011). Online social movements. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 45(1), 489-522.
Haugen, A. (April 26, 2010). New Ways to Personalize Your Online Experience. Facebook. Retrived from http://www.facebook.com/
Hechter, M., Friedman, D., & Appelbaum, M. (1982). A theory of ethnic collective action. International Migration Review, 16(2), 412-434.
Hess, D., Breyman, S., Campbell, N., & Martin, B. (2008). Science, technology and social movements. In E. J. Hackett, O. Amsterdamska, M. Lynch, & J. Wajcman (Eds.), The handbook of science and technology studies (3rd ed.) (pp. 273–498). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Heuvel, K. v. (September 30, 2011). This week: Right-Wing hypocrisy revealed, Again. Plus: Behind the 'Occupy Wall Street' protests. Retrieved from http://www.thenation.com/
Homer-Dixon, T. (2001). The Ingenuity Gap. Random House: Vintage, Canada.
Jenkins, J. C. (1981). Sociopolitical movements. In S. Long (Ed.), The handbook of political behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 81-153). New York: Plenum Press.
Laird, S. (2012). How to Build — and Keep — an Engaged Audience [INFOGRAPHIC]. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/
Lee, R. M., Draper, M., & Lee, S. (2001). Social connectedness, dysfunctional interpersonal behaviors, and psychological distress: Testing a mediator model. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 48(3), 310-318.
Leizerov, S. (2000). Privacy advocacy group versus Intel: A case study of how social movements are tactically using the internet to fight corporations. Social Science Computer Review, 18(4), 461-483.
LGBT social movements. (2013, November 25). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrived from http://en.wikipedia.org.
Lievrouw, L. A. (2006). Oppositional and activist new media: Remediation, reconfiguration, participation. Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference: Expanding Boundaries in Design, 115–124.
Lycett, M., Rassau, A., & Danson, J. (2004). Programme management: A critical review. International Journal of Project Management, 22, 289-299.
Ma, L. (2009). Slacktivism: Can social media actually cause social change? Retrieved from http://thebigchair.com.au/
Matzat, U. (2010). Reducing problems of sociability in online communities: Integrating online communication with offline interaction. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(8), 1170–1193.
Mauss, A. L. (1975). Social problems of social movements. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Maylor, H., Brady, T., Cooke-Davies, T., & Hodgson, D. (2006). From projectification to programmification. Internat J Project Manage, 24, 663-674.
McAdam, D. (1996). Political opportunities: Conceptual origins, current problems, future directions. In D. McAdam, J. D. McCarthy, & M. N. Zald (Eds.), Comparative perspectives on social movements: Political opportunities, mobilizing structures, and cultural framings (pp. 23-40). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, J. D., & Mayer, N. Z. (1977). Resource mobilization and social movements: A partial theory. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 1212-1241.
McElroy, W. (1996). Implementing strategic change through projects. International Journal of Project Management, 14(6), 325-329.
McKenna, K. Y. A., Green, A. S., & Glenson, M. E. J. (2002). Relationship formation on the Internet: What’s the big attraction? Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 9–31.
Melucci, A. (1996). Changing codes: Collective action in the information age. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Miller, D., & Slater, D. (2000). The internet: An ethnographic approach. New York: Berg.
Nakamura, L. (2002). Cybertypes: Race, ethnicity, and identity on the internet. New York: Routledge.
Nisbet, M. C., & Kotcher, J. E. (2009). A two-step flow of influence? Opinion-leader campaigns on climate change. Science Communication, 30(3), 328-354.
Offe, C. (1985). New social movements: Challenging the boundaries of institutional politics. Social Research, 52(4), 817-868.
Office of Government Commerce. (2007). Managing successful programmes. London, England: Stationery Office.
OpenStax College. (2013). Padilla's introduction to sociology. In Padilla, L. (Eds.). OpenStax College.
O'Reilly, T. (2005). What is Web 2.0 design patterns and business models for the next generation of Software. Retrived from http://www.oreilly.com/
Palacios-Marqués, D., Cortés-Grao, R., & Carral, C. L. (2012). Outstanding knowledge competences and web 2.0 practices for developing successful e-learning project management. International Journal of Project Management, 31, 14-21.
Park, E. (2002). “Net” profit of the nonprofits. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University Press.
Park, N., Kee, K. F., & Valenzuela, S. (2009). Is there social capital in a social network site?: Facebook use and college students’ life satisfaction, trust, and participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14(4), 875–901.
Pellegrinelli, S. (1997). Programme management: Organising project based change. International Journal of Project Management, 15(3), 141-149.
Porta, D. D., & Diani, M. (1999). Social movements: An introduction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Project Management Institute, PMI. (2013). A guide to project management body of knowledge. Project Management Institute.
Reiss, G. (2003). Programme management demystified: Managing multiple projects successfully. London, England: Spon Press.
Reiss, G., & Rayner, P. (2001). The Programme management maturity model. The Progrmme Management Group. Retrived from http://www.12manage.com/methods_reiss_pmmm.html
Reiss, G., Anthony, M., Chapman, J., Leigh, G., Payne, A., & Rayner, P. (2006). Gower handbook of programme management. Aldershot, England: Gower Publishing
Richter, A., & Koch, M. (2008, May). Functions of social networking services. International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems, Carry-le-Rouet, Provence, France.
Ross, C., Orr, E. S., Sisic, M., Arseneault, J. M., Simmering, M. G., & Orr, R. R. (2009). Personality and motivations associated with Facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 578-587.
Ryan, C., & Gamson, W. A. (2006). The art of reframing political debates. Contexts 5(1): 13-18. Sanger DE (2001) A nation challenged: policy; ‘on a roll,’ but where? The New York Times, 17 December, A1.
Saaty, T. L. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Saba, M. (September 17, 2011). US protesters rally to occupy Wall Street. Retrieved from http://stream.aljazeera.com/
Sawyer, S., & Tapia, A. (2007). From findings to theories: Institutionalizing social informatics. The Information Society, 23(4), 263-275.
Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 219-237.
Shirazi, F. (2013). Social media and the social movements in the Middle East and North Africa: A critical discourse analysis. Information Technology & People, 26(1), 28-49.
Snow, D. A., Rochford, B., Worden, S. K., & Benford, R. D. (1986). Frame alignment processes, micromobilization, and movement participation. American Sociological Review, 51(4), 464-481.
Spertus, E., Sahami, M., & Buyukkokten, O. (2005). Evaluating similarity measures: A large-scale study in the orkut social network. Proceedings of the eleventh ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery in data mining, 678-684.
Stein, L. (2009). Social movement web use in theory and practice: A content analysis of US movement websites. new media & society, 11(5), 749-771.
Steinfield, C., Ellison, N.B., & Lampe, C. (2008). Social capital, self-esteem, and use of online social network sites: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(6), 434-445.
Taylor, V., & Dyke, N. V. (2004). Get up, stand up: Tactical repertoires of social movements. In Snow, S. A. Soule, S.A., & Kriesi, H (Eds). The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Thiry, M. (2002). Combining value and project management into an effective programme management model. International Journal of Project Management, 20(3), 221-227.
Tian, S., Yu, A., Vogel, D., & Kwok, R. (2011). The impact of online social networking on learning: A social integration perspective. International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 8, 264-280.
Tilly, C. (1978). From mobilization to revolution. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
Touraine, A. (1981). The voice and the eye: An analysis of social movements. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Turner, J. R., & Speiser, A. (1992). Programme management and its information systems requirements. International Journal of Project Manegement, 10(4), 196-206.
Turner, R. (1993). Handbook of project-based management. McGraw-Hill.
Tusa, F. (2013). How social media can shape a protest movement: The cases of Egypt in 2011 and Iran in 2009. Arab Media and Society, 17.
Valkenburg, P., Peter, J., & Schouten, A.P. (2006). Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents’ well-being and social self-esteem. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9(5), 584–590.
Vila, S. (2011). How to plan a campaign for social change before you start it. Retrieved from http://www.movements.org/
Wasko, M., & Faray, S. (2009). Why should i share? Examining social capital and knowledge contribution in electronic networks of practice. MIS Quarterly, 29(1), 35–57.
Webster, F. (2006). Theories of information society. London, UK Routledge.
Westcott, K. (March 20, 2008). World's best-known protest symbol turns 50. BBC. Retrived from http://www.bbc.com/news/
Wijen, G. & Kor, R. (2000). Managing unique assignments. Aldershot, England: Gower Publishing.
Wittkower, D. E. (2010). Facebook and philosophy: What’s on your mind? Chicago: Opencourt.
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-09-15起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-09-15起公開。

  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館