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系統識別號 U0026-3007201213402800
論文名稱(中文) 以颱風前後魚類棲地關係探討關鍵環境因子
論文名稱(英文) Finding the critical habitat requirements by studying the fish-habitat relation before and after typhoons
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 陳品翰
研究生(英文) Pin-Han Chen
學號 N86991087
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 109頁
口試委員 口試委員-邱郁文
口試委員-莊明德
指導教授-孫建平
中文關鍵字 颱風  棲地變化  棲地復育  關鍵環境因子  旗山溪  高身鯝魚 
英文關鍵字 Typhoon  Habitat change  Habitat restoration  Critical habitat requirements  Cishan River  Onychostoma alticorpus 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣近幾年來颱風風災頻傳,其龐大的流量、土砂量以及風災過後河川中工程的施作改變了原有河川中棲地的類型和魚類的群聚。本論文透過於台灣南部旗山溪那瑪夏河段採樣調查2008.11~2009.3(呂映昇,2009)、2011.5~2012.3研究兩採樣時段中莫拉克、凡那比颱風對魚類群聚以及棲地類型的變化,進而了解環境改變後魚類棲地關係的變化。利用電格法於採樣到魚種為台灣間爬岩鰍、南台吻鰕虎、高身鯝魚、台灣馬口魚、台灣石、何氏棘鲃,其大部份數量、體長、體重皆在颱風後明顯下降。研究區域在颱風前棲地類型主要為大粒徑底質為主的湍瀨,颱風後轉變為小粒徑底質為主的深流與湍瀨,利用卵石記數法觀察溪流底質變化情形,發現於雨季以及旱季,細顆粒的底質都有漸漸被往下游帶走的情形,但由於工程的施工影響和兩岸山壁崩落的土石、不穩定的河道及兩岸植生尚未恢復,當遇雨時都還是會將土砂帶入河川中,使得颱風過後環境與原始狀況差異仍相當大。
台灣間爬岩鰍、南台吻鰕虎、高身鯝魚三種主要魚種於颱風前後對棲地的偏好的轉變經t檢定和皮爾森相關分析後,依其環境因子對魚類影響的重要性分為關鍵環境因子、一般環境因子以及可容忍環境因子。關鍵環境因子為經t檢定分析後,魚類在變動環境中對該因子的偏好範圍無改變;一般環境因子為經皮爾森相關分析後於颱風前後對魚類數量有影響的因子;可容忍環境因子則為相關分析結果於前後對魚類數量無影響,或是於後期失去影響的因子。台灣間爬岩鰍成魚的關鍵環境因子為平均水深和鵝卵石的底質百分比,而幼魚於颱風前後的棲地偏好改變中則無關鍵環境因子;南台吻鰕虎的關鍵環境因子則是平均水深、鵝卵石以及細顆粒的底質百分比,幼魚則是與台灣間爬岩鰍相同都沒有關鍵環境因子;高身鯝魚由於在颱風之後無捕獲成魚所以僅討論幼魚,其幼魚的關鍵環境因子為平均流速以及流速標準差。了解魚類的關鍵環境因子後,可提供於復育擾動後棲地以及生態工程目標為研究魚種時,最需要注意的環境因子為何者,進而提高復育和生態工程成功的機率。除關鍵環境因子之外,對魚類有不同影響程度的環境因子如一般環境因子及可容忍環境因子,其範圍也能提供復育、生態工程作為參考。
英文摘要 Catastrophic typhoons with heavily rainfall bring massive flow and fine sediments in stream channels. In addition, the natural disturbances and engineering construction after typhoon change fish abundance and their living environment. This study compared physical habitat parameters, substrate component types, fish abundance and composition by two periods of sampling (2008.11~2009.3, 2011.5~2012.3.). Study area was in Cishan River, a tributary of the KaoPing River, in the southern Taiwan. Two strong typhoons attacked study area between two study periods. The collected species were Hemimyzon formosanus, Rhinogobius nantaiensis, Onychostoma alticorpus, Cadidia barbata, Acrossocheilus paradoxus and Spinibarbus hollandi. Our results showed significant decrease of substrate size. The size and weight of most fish species were smaller than before the typhoons. The river channel reformed after heavy rains and indicated an unstable condition. Major habitat types changed from riffle with coarse substrate to run with fine substrate in both two sampling stations. The results of t-test and Pearson’s correlation indicate the different effects of habitat requirements of three major study fish species. Critical habitat requirements are requirements that have insignificant results in t-test. It means the range of fish specie’s requirements do not change between two study periods. General habitat requirements are requirements that influence to fish in both study periods, although the range may change. Tolerable habitat requirements are requirements that have no significant effects in both study periods, even the range changes after the typhoon. Adult H. formosanus’s critical habitat requirements are water depth and percent of cobble in the substrate while juvenile do not have critical habitat requirements. Adult R. nantaiensis’s critical habitat requirements are water depth, percent of cobble and fine particle in the substrate while juvenile does not have critical habitat requirements. No adult O. alticorpus was captured after typhoons for habitat requirement analysis. However, juvenile O. alticorpus’ critical habitat requirements are mean and standard deviation of flow velocity. Understanding the function of the habitat requirements can provide some useful information in restoration after the disaster and contribute in minimizing the effects of river engineering.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 論文架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 空間層級式系統與棲地之關係 5
2.2 魚類棲地關係 7
2.3 擾動對魚類及棲地之影響 10
第三章 研究方法 13
3.1 研究地點概述 13
3.2 指標魚種 18
3.3 採樣方法 22
3.3.1 微棲地魚類採樣及環境因子調查 22
3.3.2 深潭湍瀨變化調查 27
3.4 統計方法 29
3.4.1 獨立樣本t檢定 29
3.4.2 皮爾森相關係數分析 31
3.4.3 環境因子判斷流程 34
第四章 結果與討論 36
4.1 採樣結果 36
4.1.1 魚類採樣結果 36
4.1.2 微棲地調查結果 43
4.1.3 河中底質和潭瀨組成變化 46
4.2 魚類棲地關係與環境因子 55
4.2.1 關鍵環境因子 56
4.2.2 一般環境因子與可容忍環境因子 59
4.2.3 環境因子於復育及生態工程應用 68
第五章 結論與建議 80
5.1 結論 80
5.2 建議 82
第六章 參考文獻 84
中文文獻 84
英文文獻 85
附錄 95
附錄1. 獨立樣本t檢定結果 95
附錄2. 電魚公文 103

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