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系統識別號 U0026-3007201114535800
論文名稱(中文) 負向生活事件與大學生憂鬱或主觀幸福感之關係:以壓力因應方式為調節變項
論文名稱(英文) The relationship of negative life events to depression and subjective well-being of college students in Taiwan : coping style as a moderator
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 朱育萱
研究生(英文) Yu-Hsuan Chu
電子信箱 lovemintchocolate@gmail.com
學號 s8696101
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 80頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯慧貞
口試委員-陳秀蓉
口試委員-黃惠玲
口試委員-林宜美
中文關鍵字 負向生活事件  大學生  憂鬱  主觀幸福感  調節變項  壓力緩衝效果  壓力惡化效果  認知再評價/問題解決因應  逃避/情緒因應  尋求社會支持 
英文關鍵字 negative life event  college students  depression  subjective well-being  cognitive reappraisal/problem-solving coping  avoidance/emotional coping  seeking social support  stress-exacerbation effect  stress-buffering effect 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景
根據心理健康的概念,除了疾病症狀的探討,最佳功能如正向的幸福感也是其中一個向度。研究指出,美國大學生38%有無望感,28%的學生有憂鬱情緒,台灣南部大學生中有40.1%達到輕度憂鬱,13.2%達到中重度憂鬱,4.4%有憂鬱症傾向,顯示大學生具憂鬱的比例和嚴重程度,值得繼續探討大學生的憂鬱。另外,隨著正向心理學的發展、健康心理的提倡,並且學生較佳的心理健康及較少的適應問題與其主觀幸福感較高有關,本研究欲透過探討大學生的憂鬱及主觀幸福感,來了解大學生的心理健康。
根據Lazarus & Folkman(1984)的理論,在壓力下,個體的身心功能會出現變化,個體會使用不同壓力因應策略來因應壓力,並對身心健康結果變項有不同的影響。研究指出逃避或情緒因應常與憂鬱有關,認知再評估或問題解決因應則較常與主觀幸福感有關係,尋求社會支持則與兩者有關。在加入生活壓力的探討後,文獻回顧指出壓力因應方式會調節負向生活壓力與結果變項的關係,可以減緩生活壓力對身心健康的衝擊(壓力緩衝效果)或加據(壓力惡化效果)。以憂鬱為結果變項時,逃避/情緒因應為惡化效果。以主觀幸福感為結果變項時,認知再評估與其呈正向關係且問題解決因應在負向生活事件與主觀幸福感的單一面向(負向情緒)關係中,扮演緩衝的角色(壓力緩衝效果)。
研究目的與假設
本研究以壓力、壓力因應理論來探討大學生的憂鬱與主觀幸福感,欲了解負向生活事件或三種壓力因應方式(認知再評估/問題解決因應、逃避/情緒因應和尋求社會支持)與憂鬱或主觀幸福感的關係,並探討不同的壓力因應方式是否調節負向生活事件與兩結果變項(憂鬱與主觀幸福感)的關係。研究假設負向生活事件與三種壓力因應方式可以顯著預測兩結果變項,並且逃避/情緒因應調節負向生活事件與憂鬱的關係,惡化生活事件對憂鬱的影響(壓力惡化效果);認知再評估/問題解決因應調節負向生活事件對主觀幸福感的關係,減緩生活事件對主觀幸福感的影響(壓力緩衝效果)。
研究方法
參與者 本研究按照中華民國教育統計之高等教育類別分法與教育部網站所提供之歸屬分法,將南部32所大專校院,先後以文、法、商、理、工、農、醫七個區分類別及科技大學與大學比例來做分層抽樣,而後以系為單位進行叢集抽樣,如此所得樣本數共2955人,去除各研究變項的遺漏值後,有效樣本為1680人。
工具 本研究使用的研究工具包含個人基本資料表、生活幸福感量表、最近半年大學生生活事件調查表、壓力因應量表、柯氏情緒量表。
研究程序 本研究為國科會計畫(編號NSC95-2413-H-006-016)的一部分,於2006年8月1日至2007年10月31日止,先進行為期三個月的問卷調查,分別到所抽樣的南區14所大專校院,先採團體班級施測方式進行施測,再進行資料分析。
統計方法 主要以多元迴歸分析來了解負向生活事件和三種壓力因應方式與憂鬱或主觀幸福感的關係並檢測壓力因應方式的調節作用。
結果
如研究假設,負向生活事件和三種壓力因應方式分別可以顯著預測憂鬱和主觀幸福感,並且壓力因應方式具調節效果,為負向生活事件和憂鬱或主觀幸福感的調節變項。當憂鬱為結果變項時,研究發現支持壓力惡化效果,逃避/情緒因應使負向生活事件對憂鬱的影響更嚴重。當主觀幸福感為結果變項時,研究發現支持壓力緩衝效果,認知再評估/問題解決因應使負向生活事件對主觀幸福感的衝擊減少。
結論
個體所使用的壓力因應方式會加重或減緩負向生活事件對憂鬱和主觀幸福感的影響。研究結果顯示大學生在遇到生活壓力時,可透過教導減少使用逃避/情緒因應來減輕憂鬱,多使用認知再評估/問題解決等因應方式來增加主觀幸福感。本研究結果對以壓力、壓力因應、憂鬱及主觀幸福感為研究主題的研究有參考價值,另外亦可作為校園憂鬱防治和健康心理提升計畫之參考。
英文摘要 Abstract
Background
Mental health concept covers the illness and also the levels of optimal functioning such as subjective well-being. Recent researches suggested 28 % of American students reported depression and 38% reported hopeless. In Southern Taiwan, 40.1% of college students reported mild depression, 13.2% reported moderate to severe depression and 4.4% showed symtpoms of major depression disorder. These suggest depression of college students remains an important issue. As the promotion of well-being for mental health and higher level of subjective well-being is asscociated with better mental health and less adaptation problems for students, this study aimed to discuss depression and subjective well-being of college students.
According to stress and coping theory suggested by Lazarus & Folkma (1984), one’s health is impacted by stress and one would adopt different copint styles to deal with different life stressors. Researches indicated avoidance/emotional coping was associated with depression whereas cognitive reappraisal was associated with subjective well-being and seeking social support was related to both. The discussion of negative life event with coping style and two outcomes indicated coping style would moderate the relationship between negative life event and two outcomes as a buffer or excerbator. Avoidance/emotional coping interacted with negative life event excerabted depression. As for subjective well-being, it was found problem-solving coping has stress-buffering effects on the relationship of life stress and emotional well-being.
Objectives and hypotheses
The present study discussed the relationship between negative life event, three coping styles, and two outcomes (i.e., depression and subjective well-being). Further, we explored the role of coping style in relations of negative life event and two outcomes based on stress and coping framework. We hypothesized negative life event and three coping styles predicting two outcomes significantly and further, coping style was a moderator in the relationship of negative life events and each of the outcome. Specifically, avoidance/emotional coping worsen the impact of negative life event on depression and cognitive reappraisal/problem solving coping buffered the impact of negative life event on subjective well-being.
Method
Participants are college students in Southern Taiwan. A total number of 2955 college students from 14 schools were selected through stratified random sampling and cluster sampling. A valid sample excluding missing data of study variables was generated with 1680 students for the statistical analysis.
Materials
Each participant first completed the demographic questionnaire for gender, age, grade level, and several inventories were given to participants including the inventory for surveying negative life events that participants experienced in the past 6 months, the inventory for measuring 15 coping strategies, depression and subjective well-being.
Procedure
This research is a part of research project 「Psychosocial variables, screening, and intervention of college students’ suicidal attempt」(NSC95-2413-H-006-016) supported by National Science Council. Self-report data was collected from August, 2006 to October, 2007. Research was conducted in class with standard testing process. Brief instructions about the purpose, the procedure, the confidentiality and informed consent were given to each participant, and participants were then instructed to complete all inventories. Debriefing and compensation were given after the collection of the data.
Statistical analyses
Characteristics of participants were analyzed with mean. Pearson correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between negative life event, coping styles, depression and subjective well-being. Multiple regression analyses and tests of interaction comparison were employed to examine the moderator effect of coping style in the relationship between negative life event and depression or subjective well-being. Data were analyzed with the statistical software SPSS Version 17, and the level of significance was set at alpha < 0.05.
Results
As we hypothesized, negative life event and three coping styles predicted depression and subjective well-being significantly. Further, coping style played a moderating role in the relationship between negative life event and depression or subjective well-being. Specifically, stress-exacerbation effects of avoidance/emotional coping on depression and stress-buffering effects of cognitive reappraisal/problem-solving coping on subjective well-being were found.
Conclusion
Although negative life event influenced depression and subjective well-being, coping styles one adopted would worsen or buffer the impact. Results implicated as more negative life events experienced by college students, depression may be alleviated through less use of avoidance/emotional coping and subjective well-being may be increased through the use of cognitive reappraisal/problem solving coping. These findings would not only contribute to research fields in the discussion of stress, coping, depression and subjective well-being but also provide directions of mental health promotion on university campus, specifically in the prevention and intervention of depression, and the promotion of subjective well-being.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 13
第一節 大學生的心理健康 13
一、大學生的憂鬱 13
二、大學生的主觀幸福感 13
第二節 壓力與壓力因應方式 15
一、壓力的定義 15
二、壓力因應方式 16
第三節 負向生活事件、壓力因應方式與憂鬱 17
一、負向生活事件與憂鬱的關係 17
二、壓力因應方式的調節效果 18
三、壓力因應方式在負向生活事件與憂鬱的關係中所扮演的角色 19
第四節 負向生活事件、壓力因應方式與主觀幸福感 22
一、負向生活事件與主觀幸福感的關係 22
二、壓力因應方式在負向生活事件與主觀幸福感的關係中所扮演的角色 23
第五節 研究目的與研究假設 26
一、研究目的 26
二、研究假設 27
第二章 研究方法 27
第一節 研究對象與抽樣方法 27
一、研究對象 27
二、抽樣方法 28
第二節 研究工具 28
一、個人資料表 28
二、負向生活事件 28
三、主觀幸福感 28
四、壓力因應方式 29
五、憂鬱 30
第三節 研究程序 30
第四節 統計方法與資料處理 31
第三章 研究結果 32
第一節 描述性統計資料 32
第二節 皮爾森相關分析 32
第三節 多元迴歸分析 33
第四章 討論 35
第一節 本研究之主要發現與解釋 35
第二節 研究限制 39
第三節 結論與建議 39
一、 學術貢獻 40
二、 應用價值 40
第五章 參考文獻 43
表目錄
表一 各研究變項的描述統計 53
表二 各研究變項在性別上的差異 54
表三 各研究變項之相關矩陣 55
表四 多元迴歸分析:預測變項預測憂鬱之摘要表 56
表五 多元迴歸分析:預測變項預測主觀幸福感之摘要表 57
圖目錄
圖一 模式圖一:逃避/情緒因應調節負向生活事件和憂鬱的關係 58
圖二 模式圖二:認知再評估/問題解決因應調節負向生活事件和主觀幸福感的關係 59
圖三 逃避/情緒因應的調節效果 60
圖四 認知再評估/問題解決因應的調節效果 61
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