||Linking Commitment-based HR Practices and Innovation Performance: The Influences of Organizational Commitment, Knowledge Sharing, Psychological Contract, and Empowering Leadership in Taiwanese High-tech Industry
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--PHD)
Commitment-based HR practices (CBHRPs)
Hierarchical linear model (HLM)
Based on a combination of the social exchange theory, theory of reasoned action, self-determination theory (SDT), roll identity concept, intrinsic motivation theory, the concept of empowering leadership, and the psychological contract theory, this study presents two integrated models which investigate the relationships between single or bundled commitment-based HR practices (CBHRPs) at an organizational level and individual outcome variables (organizational commitment, knowledge sharing, and innovation performance) from a cross-level. It also identifies the mediating roles played by organizational commitment, and knowledge sharing in the relationship between single CBHRPs, bundled CBHRPs and innovation performance. It further examines the moderating roles of empowering leadership and relational psychological contract in the relationship between single CBHRPs, bundled CBHRPs, organizational commitment, knowledge sharing, and innovation performance. Drawing on a sample of 402 employees from 116 high-tech firms in Taiwan, the results at the individual level show that (1) organizational commitment positively influences knowledge sharing, (2) knowledge sharing positively influences innovation performance, (3) knowledge sharing positively mediates the relationship between organizational commitment and innovation performance, (4) relational psychological contract positively moderates the relationships between organizational commitment, knowledge sharing, and innovation performance. At the cross level, when firms implement five single CBHRPs, including participation, work design, training and development, performance appraisal, and compensation and rewards, the following results can be concluded: (1) only participation, work design, training and development, and compensation rewards positively influence organizational commitment, knowledge sharing, and innovation performance, (2) empowering leadership only positively moderates the relationships between participation, work design, training and development, organizational commitment, knowledge sharing, and innovation performance, (3) organizational commitment only positively mediates the relationships between participation, work design, training and development, and knowledge sharing, (4) knowledge sharing only positively mediates the relationships between participation, work design, training and development, and innovation performance, and (5) empowering leadership positively moderates the relationships between organizational commitment, knowledge sharing, and innovation performance. However, when firms bundle those five CBHRPs together, the following results can be concluded: (1) bundled CBHRPs positively influences organizational commitment, knowledge sharing, and innovation performance, (2) organizational commitment positively mediates the relationship between bundled CBHRPs and knowledge sharing, (3) knowledge sharing positively mediates the relationship between bundled CBHRPs and innovation performance, (4) empowering leadership positively moderates the relationships between bundled CBHRPs, organizational commitment, knowledge sharing, and innovation performance. The theoretical and managerial contributions and implications of these findings are discussed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS. VI
LIST OF TABLES. XI
LIST OF FIGURES. XV
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION. 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.2 Research Objectives. 7
1.3 Structure of the Research. 7
1.4 Research Process. 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW. 10
2.1 Theoretical Foundation. 10
2.2 Identify Mediators and Moderators. 16
2.3 The High-tech Industry in Taiwan. 21
2.4 Definition of Research Constructs. 24
2.4.1 Human Resource Practices (HR Practices) in the High-tech Industry. 24
2.4.2 Commitment-based Human Resource Practices (CBHRPs). 26
2.4.3 Organizational Commitment. 28
2.4.4 Knowledge Sharing. 30
2.4.5 Innovation Performance. 32
2.4.6 Psychological Contract. 34
2.4.7 Empowering Leadership. 35
2.5 Relationships among Research Constructs. 39
2.5.1 Relationship between Commitment-based HR Practices (CBHRPs) and Organizational Commitment. 39
2.5.2 Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Knowledge Sharing. 42
2.5.3 Relationship between Knowledge Sharing and Innovation Performance. 43
2.5.4 Relationship between Commitment-based HR Practices (CBHRPs) and Knowledge Sharing. 46
2.5.5 Relationship between Commitment-based HR Practices (CBHRPs) and Innovation Performance. 51
2.5.6 The Mediating Effect of Organization Commitment. 52
2.5.7 The Mediating Effects of Knowledge Sharing. 53
2.5.8 The Moderating Effects of Psychological Contract. 54
2.5.9 The Moderating Effects of Empowering Leadership. 57
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY. 63
3.1 The Conceptual Model. 63
3.2 The Pilot Study: Grounded Research. 64
3.2.1 Grounded Theory. 65
3.2.2 Content Analysis. 66
3.3 Construct Measurement. 73
3.3.1 Commitment-based HR Practices (CBHRPs). 74
3.3.2 Organizational Commitment. 78
3.3.3 Knowledge Sharing. 80
3.3.4 Psychological Contract. 81
3.3.5 Empowering Leadership. 82
3.3.6 Innovation Performance. 83
3.4 Control Variables. 85
3.5 Hypotheses to be Tested. 86
3.6 Questionnaire Design. 87
3.7 Sample Plan. 88
3.8 Data Analysis Method. 89
3.8.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis. 89
3.8.2 MANOVA. 89
3.8.3 Validity Measurements. 89
3.8.4 Reliability Analysis. 91
3.8.5 Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). 91
3.8.6 Structural Equation Model (SEM). 93
3.8.7 Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analysis. 95
CHAPTER FOUR DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY TEST. 96
4.1 Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs). 96
4.2 Characteristics of Respondents. 97
4.3 Impacts of Characteristics and Demographics on Research Constructs. 100
4.4 Descriptive Statistics, Validity Analysis, and Reliability Test. 108
4.4.1 Descriptive Statistics. 108
4.4.2 Validity Analysis. 111
4.4.3 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test. 122
CHAPTER FIVE RESEARCH RESULTS. 128
5.1 Structural Equation Model (SEM). 128
5.1.1 The Relationships between Organizational Commitment, Knowledge Sharing and Innovation Performance. 128
5.1.2 The Relationships between Commitment-based HR Practices (CBHRPs), Organizational Commitment, and Knowledge Sharing. 132
5.1.3 The Relationships between Bundled Commitment-based HR Practices (CBHRPs), Organizational Commitment, and Knowledge Sharing. 135
5.1.4 The Relationships between Commitment-based HR Practices (CBHRPs), Knowledge Sharing, and Innovation Performance. 138
5.1.5 The Relationships between Bundled Commitment-based HR Practices (CBHRPs), Knowledge Sharing, and Innovation Performance. 141
5.1.6 The Relationships between Commitment-based HR Practices (CBHRPs), Organizational Commitment, Knowledge Sharing, and Innovation Performance. 144
5.1.7 The Relationships between Bundled Commitment-based HR Practices (CBHRPs), Organizational Commitment, Knowledge Sharing, and Innovation Performance. 148
5.1.8 Summaries of Overall SEM Results and Findings for Single and Bundled CBHRPs. 152
5.2 Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) Results. 155
5.2.1 HLM Results for Cross-level Effects on Organizational Commitment. 155
5.2.2 HLM Results for Cross-level Effects on Knowledge Sharing. 159
5.2.3 HLM Results for Cross-level Effects on Innovation Performance. 164
5.2.4 Comparison of the Moderating Effects for Empowering Leadership and Psychological Contract on the Relationship between Organizational Commitment, Knowledge Sharing, and Innovation Performance. 169
5.2.5 Summaries of HLM Results and Findings for Single and Bundled CBHRPs. 170
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS. 175
6.1 Research Conclusions. 175
6.2 Research Contributions and Implications. 189
6.2.1 Theoretical Contributions and Implications. 190
6.2.2 Managerial Contributions and Implications. 193
6.3 Research Limitations. 196
Appendix 1: Survey Questionnaire. 223
Appendix 2: Open Coding for HR Practices. 235
Appendix 3: Axial Coding for HR Practices. 241
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