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系統識別號 U0026-2912200916015800
論文名稱(中文) 企業壽命及框架對財務產品廣告的影響-調適焦點的中和效果
論文名稱(英文) The Role of Business Longevity and Framing on the Effectiveness of Financial Product Advertisement - Moderating Effects of Regulatory Focus
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 國際經營管理研究所碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)(on the job class)
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 林瑤娟
研究生(英文) Yao-Chuan Lin
學號 RA796127
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 113頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳萬益
口試委員-王慕容
口試委員-鄭至甫
中文關鍵字 企業壽命  框架  調適焦點  廣告態度  品牌態度  行為意圖 
英文關鍵字 Business Longevity  Framing  Regulatory Focus  Attitude toward the Advertisement  Attitude toward the Brand  Behavioral Intention 
學科別分類
中文摘要 直至2007年,台灣的GDP排名已達全球第37名,伴隨著GDP的持續上昇,台灣人民投資需求亦大幅增加。為因應此趨勢,政府在1986年開始允許人民可透過銀行投資共同基金。但可惜的是,高達70%的個人投資者投資失敗。
因此,本研究試圖以行銷觀點來探索影響基金投資人決策的因素為何。先前的文獻指出大部份企業會告知客戶其建立年代,且當企業指出投資結果時(無論是損失或獲利)皆會顯著地影響投資人的選擇與行為。進一步的說,因為財務商品與風險、損失或獲利密切相關,因此投資者的風險傾向(調適焦點)在本研究中被視為中和因素,且與企業壽命及訊息框架結合來探索這些因素對投資者的態度及投資意願意的影響。
因此本研究採用2(企業壽命:長、短)X2 (訊息框架:正面、負面)實驗方式進行,並以120位台北地區的受訪者作為研究對象。此外,研究對象的調適焦點亦為列入研究因素中。
分析的結果顯示當企業壽命較長且訊息框架為正面時,投資者對廣告或品牌的態度較為正面。相反地,當企業壽命較短且訊息框架為負面時,投資者對廣告及品牌的態度較為負。研究結果亦說明當投資者對廣告的態度為正面時,其對品牌的態度亦為正面,且具有較高的投資與建議意願。研究結果最後亦顯示調適焦點為個人投資者的中和因素,亦即,當企業壽命較短或訊息框架為負面時,趨利型投資人對廣告及品牌的態度仍比避險型投資人較為正面。
因此本研究的結果可供個人投資者一項參考,亦即投資者的心理帳號會影響對財務商品廣告及品牌的態度,因此當瞭解這點後,投資人可依此而做出更理智的投資決策。對行銷經理及廣告業者而言,本研究的結果將有助於建立有效的印刷廣告並成功地建立目標市場。
英文摘要 As of 2007, Taiwan ranked 37th on the world ranking for GDP per capita (nominal). There’s an increasing need of investment accompanied by the rising GDP in Taiwan. To meet this trend, the government started allowing its people to invest in mutual funds and bonds via banks in 1986. But regrettably, up to 70% of- individual investors investments were not successful.
Hence, this study tries to explore the factors that affect fund investors’ decision making from a marketing viewpoint. Previous literature shows that informing customers about the year of a business is established is quite common. And when businesses point out the framed outcome, either potential losses or gains will greatly affects people’s choice and behavior. Moreover, since financial products are closely connected with risk, gain and loss, thus investors’ risk propensity (regulatory focus) is also taken into study as a moderator and it is combined with business longevity and message framing to find out their effects on investors’ attitude and investment intention.
Therefore, the 2 (business longevity: long and short) x 2 (message framing: positive and negative) between-subject factorial design were conducted with one hundred and twenty individual fund investors in Taiwan as subjects. The subjects’ regulatory focus inclination (promotion and prevention) was also investigated.
The analytical results suggest that investors will have more positive attitude toward the advertisement if the business is long-established and while the message is positively framed. Contrarily, investors tend to have less favorable attitude toward the advertisement (Aad) and the brand (Ab) when the business is newly established and the message is negatively framed. Meanwhile, the results verify that investors will have more positive Ad if they have positive Aad. Moreover, investors will have more positive behavioral intention (to invest and to recommend) when they have favorable Aad and Ab. Finally, the results also testify that regulatory focus acts as a moderator for individual investors’ attitudes, that is, even though the business is newly established or the message is negatively framed, investors still tend to have more favorable Aad and Ab when they are promotion- rather than prevention-inclined.
The results of this study can be used as a reference for individual investors about how mental accounts influence they attitude toward Aad and Ab, and then they can make more rational investment decisions accordingly. For marketing managers and advertisers the analytic results can help them to create valid print advertisements and to determine their target segment.
論文目次 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I
ABSTRACT II
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation. 1
1.2 Research Objectives and Contributions. 5
1.3 Scope of the Study. 6
1.4 Research Procedure. 6
1.5 The Structure of this Study. 7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Regulatory Focus Theory. 9
2.2 Prospect Theory. 14
2.3 Definition of Research Constructs. 15
2.3.1 Business Longevity. 15
2.3.2 Framing. 16
2.3.3 Regulatory Focus. 19
2.3.4 Attitude toward the Advertisement. 20
2.3.5 Attitude toward the Brand. 22
2.3.6 Behavioral Intention (Intention to Invest). 23
2.4 Hypotheses Development. 25
2.4.1 Main Effects of Business Longevity, Framing and Attitude toward the Advertisement and Attitude toward the Brand. 25
2.4.2 Interrelationship among Attitude toward the Advertisement, Attitude toward the Brand and Behavioral Intention. 29
2.4.3 The Moderating Effect of Regulatory Focus. 32
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 Conceptual Framework of the Study. 35
3.2 Summary of Research Hypotheses. 36
3.3 Research Design. 36
3.4 Stimulus Development. 37
3.5 Manipulation Check of Independent Variables. 38
3.5.1 Business Longevity. 38
3.5.2 Framing. 40
3.5.3 Regulatory Focus. 42
3.6 Measurements of Dependent Variables. 43
3.6.1 Attitude toward the Advertisement. 43
3.6.2 Attitude toward the Brand. 44
3.6.3 Behavioral Intention (Investment Intention). 44
3.7 Questionnaire Design. 45
3.8 Sample Plan. 46
3.9 Main Study. 46
3.10 Data Analysis Procedure. 47
3.10.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis. 47
3.10.2 Purification and Reliability of the Measurement Variables. 47
3.10.3 Independent Sample t-Test. 48
3.10.4 Paired Sample t-Test. 48
3.10.5 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). 49
3.10.6 Regression Analysis. 49
CHAPTER FOUR DESCRIPTIVE AND RELIABILITY ANALYSIS 51
4.1 Descriptive Analysis. 51
4.1.1 Characteristics of Respondent (Experimental Group). 51
4.1.2 Measurement Results for Relevant Variables. 53
4.2 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test. 56
4.2.1 Regulatory Focus. 56
4.2.2 Attitude toward the Advertisement. 57
4.2.3 Attitude toward the Brand. 58
4.2.4 Behavioral Intention. 58
4.3 Control Group Analysis. 59
4.3.1 Measurement Results for Relevant Variables. 60
4.3.2 The Different Results between Experimental Group and Control Group. 62
4.4 Correlation Matrix for All Constructs. 63
CHAPTER FIVE RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 66
5.1 Differences between Factors of Research Construct. 66
5.1.1 The Effect of Business Longevity. 66
5.1.2 The Effect of Message Framing. 67
5.2 The Interaction Effects of Business Longevity and Message Framing. 68
5.3 Relationship among Attitude toward the Advertisement, Attitude toward the Brand, and Behavioral Intention. 71
5.3.1 The Effect of Attitude toward the Advertisement on Attitude toward the Brand. 71
5.3.2 The Effect of Attitude toward the Advertisement on Behavioral Intention. 71
5.3.3 The Effect of Attitude toward the Brand on Behavioral Intention. 72
5.4 The Moderating Effect of Regulatory Focus on Attitude toward the Advertisement, Attitude toward the Brand. 73
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 77
6.1 Research Conclusion. 77
6.2 Implications and Suggestions. 80
6.2.1 Implications for Marketers and Fund Individual Investors. 80
6.2.2 Implications for Academic Researchers. 81
6.3 Limitations and Future Research Directions. 82
REFERENCES 83
APPENDICES 92
Appendix 1: Stimuli in the Pilot Study and Experiment 92
Appendix 2: Questionnaire for Pilot Study and Experiment 102
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