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系統識別號 U0026-2908201714194600
論文名稱(中文) 探討運動和體感中文隱喻語句理解歷程之大腦反應差異
論文名稱(英文) Exploring the neural differences in understanding Chinese fictive motion and metaphorical texture sentences
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 心理學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Psychology
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 陳怡蘋
研究生(英文) Yi-Ping Chen
學號 U76041022
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 51頁
口試委員 指導教授-龔俊嘉
口試委員-龔書萍
口試委員-程涂媛
中文關鍵字 體現認知  GLM  Searchlight  運動隱喻文句  體感隱喻文句 
英文關鍵字 embodied cognition  GLM  searchlight  Chinese Fictive Motion Sentences  Chinese Textual Metaphors Sentences 
學科別分類
中文摘要 語言神經科學的目的之一,是在尋求各種語言處理歷程或刺激變項(如字/詞、形音義、或是不同語系的語言)間的大腦處理相關腦區與其時序特性。在方法上強調特定大腦處理區位的相關研究,已可整理出左上顳葉(the left superior temporal area)專精在語意理解,左顳頂葉(the left tempora-parietal area)與空間動作相關的詞句處理有關,動作區及感覺動作(motor and premotor)區則是與動作模擬或相關概念的展現。而後者又與認知科學學者提出一個觀點-體現認知(Embodied cognition),強調語言理解在處理知覺和動作或相關語句或隱喻時,大腦相應的區位也會被同時激發的概念有關。當運動時,前顳葉與顳頂葉的一致性較無爭議,然而動作及感覺動作區是否會在處理動作相關概念時被激發,是一個爭論已久的議題。除了可能的發表偏誤(意即有顯著差異的結果的才易被發表或接受),而其他可能的混淆變項(如字根的出現位置頻率等)也影響了結果的解釋。另外,直至目前為止,絕大多數研究仍然是延用傳統的GLM分析架構。因此,在本研究中,我們試著使用虛擬運動句實驗(Fictive Motion)和體感隱喻語句實驗(Texture Metaphors),嘗試理解運動和體感中文隱喻語句的大腦活動,並且使用了新近普及的搜尋光式(searchlight)分析方法,尋求多像素(multimoxel)概念為基礎的有效分類訊息的腦區。希望藉由不同分析的方式處理同一資料,提出超越先前結論的新發現。
在實驗一(虛擬運動句實驗,N=24)的刺激材料間的GLM分析比較最關鍵的虛擬運動句(Fictive Motion sentence,簡稱FMS)與和無運動動詞語句(Non-Motion sentences,簡稱NMS),發現在左側顳中回(MTG)、額下回(IFG)和中枕骨回(MOG),以及右側海馬回(PHG)等腦區有差異存在,即這些腦區受到不同的刺激材料誘發會有不同程度的反應差異響應。在實驗二(體感隱喻語句,N=25)的刺激材料間的GLM分析比較最關鍵的體感隱喻句(Metaphorical texture sentence,簡稱MTS)與無體感隱喻句(Non-texture sentences,簡稱NTS),發現在左側中央回(PreCG)、額下回(IFG) 、顳中回(MTG)和顳中回(ITG)等腦區有響應的差異存在。意指進行不同的任務時會激發不同程度的腦區活動之響應,也就是說不同任務會激發這些腦區不同的活躍情形。此在實驗一和實驗二的searchlight分析中,發現到顳中回(MTG)除了跟理解隱喻句有關之外,亦具有能區辨奇異運動句(AMS)和無運動動詞句(NMS)、
II
體感隱喻句(MTS)和無體感隱喻句(NTS)這兩組刺激材料之區辨力。
最重要的,是不論在虛擬運動句實驗或是體感隱喻語句實驗中,都沒有看到運動或體感相對應之相關腦區的神經活動。但雙側的顳葉(temporal gyrus)與楔前葉(Precuneus)的參與隱喻句的處理歷程,則是從GLM或searchlight的分析結果中皆獲得了支持,與先前隱喻理解之相關研究的發現一致。文末,並對本研究結果與體現認知的相關支持與解釋立場作一番闡述。
英文摘要 One of the goals in language neuroscience is to map functionally related brain areas and their spatio-temporal properties involved in various language. Nearly two decades of fMRI studies have identified several brain regions involved in language-related processing, such as the left temporal area for semantic processing, the temporal-parietal/angular gyrus for spatially related action concepts, and motor/premotor cortex for action-related concepts.
Embodied cognition, which emphasizing the correspondence between our perceptual/cognitive system and the structure of external environment, whenever motor concept is simulated, the motor/premotor cortex is unavoidably and comparatively activated. Other than the possible publication bias—indicated by both the forest and funnel plot of the extant literature, other variables (such as the frequencies in word suffix) might also confound the explanation. Until now, all the above-mentioned studies adopted exclusively the general linear model—aka. GLM approach for fMRI data analysis.
In this study, we investigated the neural substrates in Chinese Fictive Motion (Exp1, N=24) and Textual Metaphors (Exp2, N=25). Moreover, except the GLM approach, the recently popular multi-voxel searchlight approach was also used to seek for informative voxels that can help provide converging findings. Most importantly, no matter in exp1 or exp2, and with both GLM and searchlight, none of the relative motor/premotor/sensorimotor activations were identified. But both analyses methods identified middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and precuneus activities across the two experiments, consistent with the extant literature.
論文目次 摘要 I
英文摘要 III
誌謝 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1文字處理機制 2
1.2體現認知(Embodied cognition) 4
1.3界定研究範圍 5
第二章 文獻探討 6
2.1非中文之體感、運動文句的相關研究 6
2.2 中文的運動或體感文句的相關腦區的研究 11
2.3一般線性模型(GLM)與搜尋光式(Searchlight)之分析 19
2.3.1一般線性模型(GLM)之分析 19
2.3.2 搜尋光式(Searchlight)之分析 19
第三章 研究方法與實驗設計 21
3.1運動(Motion)隱喻文句之實驗說明 21
3.2體感(Texture)隱喻文句之實驗說明 21
3.3分析方法 23
第四章 研究結果 24
4.1實驗一之研究結果 24
4.1.1反應時間之F檢定 24
4.1.2 GLM分析 25
4.1.3 Searchlight分析 28
4.2實驗二之研究結果 31
4.2.1反應時間之F檢定 31
4.2.2 GLM之T檢定結果 32
4.2.3 Searchlight分析 35
第五章 討論與建議 37
5.1討論 37
5.2建議 39
參考文獻 41
附錄一 實驗一和實驗二之刺激材料 49
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