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系統識別號 U0026-2908201221214300
論文名稱(中文) 探討不同退費策略下對鐵路業者營收影響之研究
論文名稱(英文) Effect of Various Refund Policies on the Railway System Operators’ Profit
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 郭家旻
研究生(英文) Chia-Min Kuo
學號 R56991115
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 111頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭永祥
口試委員-張有恆
口試委員-林東盈
口試委員-黃寬丞
口試委員-李治綱
中文關鍵字 退費機制  顧客價值  售票策略  經濟模式 
英文關鍵字 Refund policy  Customer valuation  Selling strategy  Economic refund model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣鐵路業之退費制度是採取全額退費及較簡單之退費步驟,相較於國外鐵路業、零售業及航空業之退費制度上仍有改善之空間。完善的退費措施可使乘客謹慎規劃行程外,對於鐵路業者而言,亦可減少因退換票所造成的座位資源浪費,並促使乘客通知業者退票以減少乘客未出現的情形。

本研究將購票及退票時間分為前後兩期,首先先以數理經濟學建構一套前期退費模式,考量鐵路業的特性如乘客價值、艙等選擇、購退票時間及退票之麻煩成本,再針對兩種不同價值顧客在兩種不同購票時間下對價格及替代品的選擇,並依不同顧客價值給予不同退費,亦針對不同顧客的購票時間及退票率進行再售及售票策略之探討;而後期退票模式則因接近列車出發時間,本研究以指數函數建立後期退費模式,並以後期退票率及退票時間作為變數,擬訂不同退票時間下所給予不同退費之方案。

在本研究之情境下,發現前期退費措施給予高價值顧客及高艙等之乘客較多退費,而在後期退費制度下,則是以退票時間給予不同退費,離列車出發時間越近則退費越少。在售票策略方面,鐵路業者對於希望在再售價格較高、退費率低以及吸引高價值顧客購票的情況之下所獲得之收益最高。
英文摘要 Full refund and easy cancellation procedure are offered in Taiwan railway systems. Comparing the refund policies with Japan, France and Korea, and industries in airlines and retails, this study aims to modify refund policies for the railway industries. Offering a thorough refund policy can make passengers plan their schedules carefully for customers. Otherwise, it can avoid wasting seat resources and reduce no-shows for railway companies.
This study separates two selling periods as advance and spot, and implements a refund model for advance selling period. Considering in customer valuation, fare class, ticket purchasing and cancellation time, and the hassle cost. At first, this study distinguishes two valuation customers on choosing ticket purchasing time and alternatives. Refunds are given according to customers’ valuation. Also, various ticket selling and resell strategies are discussed. Last, this study establishes spot refund policies in exponential functions according to cancellation time and cancellation rate.
Under given conditions, this study discovers that more refunds are given to high valuation customers and high fare classes under advance refund policy. And refunds are given according to the cancellation time on spot refund policy. The railway company will adopt the selling strategies on high resell price, high valuation customers and low cancellation rate for high profits.
論文目次 Table of Contents I
List of Tables III
List of Figures V
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 5
1.3 Research Scope and Subjects 6
1.4 Research Framework 6
Chapter 2 Literature Review 8
2.1 Refund Policies in Various Countries’ Railway Industries 8
2.1.1 Japan 9
2.1.2 Korea 12
2.1.3 France 13
2.1.4 Taiwan 14
2.1.5 Summary 15
2.2 Characteristics of Various Industries in the Refund Policies 16
2.2.1 Retail Industries 16
2.2.2 Airline Industries 18
2.2.3 Relative Literature on the Model Construction 19
2.2.4 The Difference in this Study 23
2.3 Summary 27
Chapter 3 Methodology 29
3.1 Problem Definition 29
3.2 Research Model 30
3.2.1 Variables Assumption 31
3.2.2 Refund Policies in the Advance Selling Period 32
3.2.3 Refund Policies in the Spot Selling Period 43
3.3 Summary 45
Chapter 4 Numerical Example 46
4.1 Model Demonstration under One Seat Capacity 46
4.1.1 The Value of Key Factors 46
4.1.2 Data analysis 53
4.1.3 Fixed Price under One Seat Capacity 56
4.1.4 Sensitive Analysis 56
4.1.5 Brief Summary 59
4.2 Model Demonstration under Full Seat Capacity 60
4.2.1 Profit in each Case 61
4.2.2 Fixed Price under Full Capacity 66
4.2.3 Sensitive Analysis 68
4.3 Comparing the Refund Policies with Other Countries 71
4.3.1 Profit in each Country with the Refund Policy 72
4.3.2 Analysis 72
4.4 Spot Refund Policies in Full Seat Capacity 74
4.4.1 Spot Refund Policies in Case 1 76
4.4.2 Spot Refund Policies in Case 2 79
4.4.3 Spot Refund Policies in Case 3 and 4 81
4.4.4 Brief Summary 83
4.5 Summary 84
Chapter 5 Conclusion 86
5.1 Findings 86
5.2 Contributions 87
5.2.1 Academic Contributions 87
5.2.2 Managerial Implication 89
5.3 Limitations and Future Research 90
Appendix 91
Appendix 1:Notations 91
Appendix 2 : Revenue under fixed price with one seat capacity 93
Appendix 3 : Prices of each fare class under each case in full seat capacity 95
Appendix 4 : Revenue under each case in full seat capacity 101
Appendix 5 : Revenue under the refund policy in each country 103
Appendix 6: The refund rate under the spot refund policy 105
Reference 106
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