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系統識別號 U0026-2908201215430700
論文名稱(中文) 使用雷射掃瞄技術探索裸露礫石河床表面
論文名稱(英文) Exploration of Laser Scanning for Exposed Fluvial Gravel Bed Surfaces
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 黃國豪
研究生(英文) Guo-Hao Huang
學號 p68941019
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 101頁
口試委員 指導教授-王驥魁
口試委員-曾義星
口試委員-林慶偉
口試委員-鄭克聲
口試委員-吳富春
中文關鍵字 雷射掃瞄  礫石河床粗糙度  水流方向  調整程序 
英文關鍵字 laser scanning  gravel bed roughness  flow direction  regularization 
學科別分類
中文摘要 了解礫石河床的結構對於研究礫石河床粗糙度與沉積物運輸兩者而言相當重要。許多研究已經致力於獲取礫石河床表面資料,用以分析礫石河床的粗糙度。這些研究中大多受限於用來量測礫石河床表面高程資料的儀器特性,因而只能討論小範圍的取樣區域。近年來對於量測大範圍礫石河床區域的研究,已逐漸受到重視。此外使用空載光達技術快速掃瞄大範圍區域並獲得空間資訊,為目前所偏重的掃瞄方法。本研究中,我們使用空載光達資料掃瞄河段資料,並分析使用空載光達資料推估而得之粗糙度特性。

由於空載光達的光跡較大,空載光達資料描述的礫石河床表面會較為平滑,推估而得之粗糙度也會是有偏的。此外,當量測尺度變化時,礫石河床粗糙度相對應的尺度變化仍缺乏實際的研究。因此本研究亦使用地面光達於地面測站獲取高解析度資料。本研究的第2章中提出了一個兩階段以均值為基礎的方法處理地面光達資料,藉以產生高解析度的數值表面模型。第3章則利用地理統計學中的調整程序,確立由地面光達產生的數值地形模型資料與空載光達資料之間的礫石河床粗糙度之尺度轉換關係。第4章中我們探索整個河段中,由空載光達推估之礫石河床粗糙度特性。並且展現水流方向比較成果,水流方向比較由空載光達資料的二維半變異圖中推估而得之最大連續性方向與利用水理模式推求三種不同流量所得之水流方向。
英文摘要 Understanding of the structure of gravel bed surface is vital for the gravel bed roughness and sediment entrainment. A lot of works have been done on the acquisition of gravel bed surface to investigate the gravel bed roughness. Most of these studies only focus on the small sampling area due to the limitation of the instruments that were used to acquire the elevation information of gravel bed surface. Recently, there has been considerable interest in measuring the gravel bed surface over a large area. And, airborne laser scanning (ALS) has become the preferred technology of rapidly acquiring the spatial data for large areas. We use ALS to measure a rive section and investigate the gravel bed roughness derived from ALS data in this dissertation.

Due to large footprint sizes of ALS, the gravel bed surface would be smoother in ALS data, which causes a biased roughness. Moreover, the scaling characteristics of the gravel bed roughness on the change of measurement scale are still lack of empirical investigation. As part of this issue, we use terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to capture high resolution data at field sites. Chapter 2 presents a two-stage mean-based algorithm for TLS data to generate the digital surface model (DSM). In Chapter 3, we use the regularization method to establish the scaling relations of the gravel bed roughness between TLS-derived DSM and ALS data. In Chapter 4, we explore the gravel bed roughness of ALS data of a river section, and show the flow direction comparison results between the direction of maximum continuity exhibited in the two dimensional variogram surfaces of ALS data and the flow direction derived from a hydrodynamic model at three flow rates.
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract iii
Acknowledgements v
Contents vii
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and objectives 1
1.2 Contribution 6
1.3 Organization 6
Chapter 2 Mesoscale Terrestrial Laser Scanning of Fluvial Gravel Surfaces 9
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Material and Methods 12
2.2.1 Study sites 12
2.2.2 Terrestrial laser scanning 13
2.2.3 Multiple scan strategy 14
2.2.4 DSM generation 16
2.2.5 Manual surface profile collection 23
2.3 Results and Discussion 23
2.3.1 TLS-derived DSM 23
2.3.2 Assessment of TLS-derived DSM 27
2.4 Conclusion 31
2.5 Acknowledgement 32
Chapter 3 Multiscale Geostatistical Estimation of Gravel Bed Roughness From Terrestrial and Airborne Laser Scanning 33
3.1 Introduction 34
3.2 Data 37
3.3 Method 41
3.4 Results and Discussion 45
3.4.1 2-D variogram surfaces 45
3.4.2 Regularization 48
3.5 Conclusion 53
3.6 Acknowledgement 54
Chapter 4 Geostatistical Characterization of Gravel Bed Surface Using Airborne Laser Scanning 55
4.1 Introduction 55
4.2 Data 57
4.2.1 Laser scanning 57
4.2.2 Simulated flow direction 64
4.3 Method 64
4.3.1 Estimation of the gravel bed roughness 64
4.3.2 Flow direction comparison 65
4.4 Results and Discussion 66
4.4.1 2-D variogram surfaces 66
4.4.2 Direction of maximum continuity in area E 71
4.4.3 Comparison of flow direction 73
4.4.4 Regularization 79
4.4.5 Gravel bed roughness 83
4.5 Conclusion 91
Chapter 5 Conclusion 93
References 95
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