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系統識別號 U0026-2908201000081700
論文名稱(中文) 基礎於開放及互操作性考量之地圖介面資料完整性分析與展示
論文名稱(英文) An Open and Interoperable approach towards the Analysis and Illustration of Data Completeness Information in Map Interface
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 廖向芃
研究生(英文) Hsiung-Peng Liao
電子信箱 darkness@geomatics.ncku.edu.tw
學號 p6890101
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 201頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪榮宏
口試委員-林峰田
口試委員-曾義星
口試委員-史天元
召集委員-蘇明道
口試委員-蔡博文
中文關鍵字 資料完整性  使用者介面  互操作性  資料品質 
英文關鍵字 Data completeness  Map interface  Interoperability  Data quality 
學科別分類
中文摘要 對於GIS來說,使用者介面是一個不可或缺的元件,GIS使用者透過使用者介面瀏覽和展示現實世界中各種地形地物的數值資料。隨著網際網路環境的發展,使用者越來越容易透過網路取得分散在各地,且由不同使用者建置之資料,空間資料架構(Spatial Data Infrastructure,簡稱SDI)也提供了GIS使用者更為便利的查詢和取得線上地理資料的環境。現行之網際網路地理資訊系統雖然提供一個更為便利的資料查詢及取得環境,然而面對數量龐大、種類各易、由他人所生產的主題資料,未具經驗的使用者可能在應用時犯下重大錯誤而不自知。嚴格來說,套疊成果不能被視為一幅地圖,忽略地圖製作應遵循的基本原則而進行操作可能隱藏極大的危機,但不具經驗的使用者卻可能從頭至尾均不了解其嚴重性。本研究嘗試架構於地圖知識,提出一個資料運用架構,以協助使用者更正確地使用取得之資料。

本研究嘗試將詮釋資料、製圖知識整合於單一GML(Geography Markup Language)檔案中,於使用者取得資料之同時,將本研究提出之valid extent和illustrated extent概念,以視覺化展現方式將資料完整性(data completeness)之資訊展示於GIS使用者介面中。”Valid extent”表示在使用者介面中所有主題資料皆完整記錄的一個範圍或區域,同時意味在這個範圍內任何主題的資料均須完整記錄,不可遺漏。由於valid extent的計算結果會隨著選取的資料不同而有變化,因此使用者也必須即時了解該valid extent的範圍,以協助使用者做更正確的判斷。本論文並實際展示測試之成果,經由視覺化展示之valid extent和illustrated extent等資訊,使用者可以迅速地了解資料涵蓋範圍和有效資料區域,以輔助使用者進行更可靠的決策。然而,由於不同的資料具有不同之資料品質,因此如何決定每項資料對於valid extent之負面影響程度,也可作為輔助使用者是否加入該項資料之決定。因此研究中也提出負面影響參數和加入資料順序之建議,以協助使用者更加了解資料之特性。

本研究成功整合詮釋資料和製圖知識,提出了一個全新的使用者概念,以成功連結資料提供者和資料使用者。相較於目前的GIS使用者介面,本研究整合開放格式和分散式資料等概念,提出一個引入視覺展示知識的架構,在互操作性和視覺化輔助下,協助使用者更正確地解讀使用者介面展示之資料,因此使用者可以即時取得使用者介面中有效資料的範圍。由於提出之概念是架構開放式OpenGIS技術完成的,因此可適用於任何GIS平台或介面中,尤其特別適合於以圖徵(feature)為基礎之服務導向架構(Service Oriented Architecture,簡稱SOA)中運用。且本研究提出之概念也應成為所有GIS系統或程式中一個必要之功能,以輔助使用者更正確地使用各項資料。
英文摘要 Map interface is an essential and indispensable component to GIS applications. It has been long serving as the major platform for GIS users to visually inspect the phenomena of reality. One distinct and improving feature of the internet GIS technology is the easier sharing of geospatial data from distributed georesources. With recent rapid growth of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), searching and accessing online geospatial resources is no longer a major barrier to GIS users. Although this development enables a more dynamic and flexible data integration at clients’ applications, the heterogeneous nature of different georesources, nonetheless, becomes an impediment to the correct interpretation towards the illustrated content of the map interface. Users have to frequently face “unfamiliar” combination of geospatial data, sometimes are even forced to make risky decisions purely based what they see in the map interface. It is therefore necessary to develop a mechanism that enables users to build a thorough understanding about the acquired data before they can make correct decisions.

Based on the proposed concept of valid extent and illustrated extent, we develop an innovative model that can provide visual aids of data completeness information in the GIS-based map interface by integrating metadata, GML (Geography Markup Language), and cartographic knowledge. “Valid extent” is defined as an area in the map interface that fulfils the data completeness requirement, meaning that all the features of the selected data themes within this region are completely recorded. Since the valid extent totally depends on the status of the selected overlaid data, users must be constantly aware of how it changes during map interface manipulation. We demonstrated that by visually presenting the valid and illustrated extent information to users, the interpretation towards the contents in map interface becomes reliable and possible discrepancies regarding data completeness can be easily identified. However, since the quality of dynamically acquired datasets is often unpredictable, we also showed that the adding sequence of datasets may play a critical role in the final decision making.

By successfully integrating the metadata information and formalized cartographic knowledge, we proposed a new approach to effectively link the necessary communication between data providers and users. Compared to current GIS map interfaces, the introduced open format of distributed data and knowledge-based visual aids enables users to correctly interpret the illustrated results of the map interface in an interoperable and visualized way, such that users are always aware of the status of data completeness regarding the illustrated content of the map interfaces. With the introduction of OpenGIS technology, the proposed mechanism can be readily implemented in all types of GIS platforms, particularly the future SOA environment. It should thus be a mandatory feature for the future GIS applications.
論文目次 中文摘要 III
ABSTRACT V
ACKNOWLEDGMENT VII
TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII
LIST OF TABLES X
LIST OF FIGURES XI

1. Introduction 1
1.1. Background 1
1.2. Research scope and major strategy 6
2. Literature review 12
2.1. The evolution of GIS-based application environment 12
2.2. Data Issue 16
2.2.1. Data quality 16
2.2.2. Metadata 28
2.3. GML 34
2.4. Map interface 40
2.4.1. Map Operation 40
2.4.2. Interoperability 45
3. Data completeness and valid extent 48
3.1. The evaluation of Data Completeness 49
3.1.1. Fundamental characteristics of a map interface 49
3.1.2. Representation of data completeness information 54
3.2. Valid extent analysis 62
3.2.1. Definition of valid extent 63
3.2.2. The influence of datasets of the same data theme 67
3.2.3. Definition of illustrated extent 70
3.3. Development of Standardized Description Framework 71
3.3.1. GML encoding for distributed data 74
3.3.2. The encoding of data completeness information 79
3.4. Visual map interface design 84
3.4.1. Measurement level 86
3.4.2. Feature dimensionality 87
3.4.3. Visual variables 87
4. Negative parameter analysis for valid extent 90
4.1. Influence of the order of addition sequence 90
4.2. Calculation the intersection polygon of surveyed area 93
4.3. Calculation of the overlaid sequence parameter 99
4.4. Analysis examples 104
4.4.1. Calculation of adding sequence for general case 104
4.4.2. Calculation of adding sequence for containing relation 105
4.4.3. Calculation of adding sequence for two disjoint datasets 107
4.5. Calculation of adding sequence for considering map interface 110
4.5.1. Calculation of adding sequence for two valid extents in one case 112
4.5.2. Calculation of adding sequence in map interface 1 113
4.5.3. Calculation of adding sequence in map interface 2 114
4.5.4. Calculation of adding sequence in map interface 3 116
5. Prototype Development and Test Analysis 123
5.1. The design of prototype system 124
5.2. The functions of manipulating GML data 129
5.2.1. Implementation of WFS connector 129
5.2.2. Parsing data completeness information 134
5.3. Illustration of Surveyed area 136
5.3.1. Querying the surveyed area 137
5.3.2. The merge of surveyed area 143
5.4. The impact of visual aids 144
5.4.1. Illustration of valid extent during map browsing 145
5.4.2. The influence of the selected datasets 147
5.5. Illustrated extent, overlapped area and negative impact 152
5.5.1. Querying the illustrated extent 152
5.5.2. Querying the overlapped area of surveyed area 154
5.5.3. The use of the negative impact in the map interface 158
6. Conclusion and future work 169
6.1. Conclusion 169
6.2. Future work 173
7. Reference 176
Appendix I: Symbol for algebraic specification 195
Appendix II: Algebraic specification for valid extent 197
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