||Cu/Cu2O composite films for novel perovskite solar cells and photodetectors
||Department of Photonics
第二部分調控Cu/Cu2O的厚度找出電性和透光度最佳平衡點，期望作為透明電極取代金屬電極。對於雙面透光的鈣鈦礦太陽能電池已經實現14.1% (從FTO照光)和9.37% (從Cu/Cu2O照光)的光電轉換效率，開啟雙面透光元件結合太陽能窗應用於建築物整合太陽光電系統中的可能性。
In recent year, the energy issues have been arguing endlessly. From the stop nuclear power generation to the vote through on nuclear energy by referendum. People are gradually realizing the importance of energy and never want to use “ love ” to generate electricity. According to the announcement of the Taiwan Power Company, the power generation structure of Taiwan in 107 year is mainly based on thermal power generation with fuel, gas, and coal burning of more than 80%. Nuclear energy is 11.4%, and other renewable, pumping, and steam energy sources are still less than 9%. This shows that the form of overall power generation still has a negative impact on the environment. As people's awareness of environmental protection rises, thermal power generation will cause air pollution problems and the setting storage sites of nuclear wastes have become a topic of debate between public opinion and policy. Countries around the world are actively developing and using clean renewable energy. We hope to reduce and solve the pollution problems caused by traditional power generation in the most positive way, and replace thermal and nuclear power with green energy. Green energy power generation is commonly found in solar, wind, hydro, and biomass energy generation. While perovskite-based solar cells has grown very rapidly in just a few years, which power conversion efficiency (PCE) has increased from the initial 3.8% to more than 24.2%, it is considered to have great potential and can compete with crystal Si-based solar cells. However, due to the inherent defects of the perovskite, it is susceptible to the external environment and the chemical reaction of the metal electrode makes the poor stability.
How to improve stability? The first way is to optimize the composition of the perovskite. Although this method is very useful, it is also very laborious. On the other hand, incorporating proper carrier transport layers and electrodes into perovskite-based solar cells is also considered as effective ways to maintain device stability as well as the efficiency of perovskite-based solar cells. Therefore, this study researches the effect of inorganic hole transport material Cu/Cu2O on perovskite solar cells to expect stability improved as well as the PCE increased.
The first part uses the ion beam sputtering system to deposit the Cu/Cu2O composite films by adjusting the ratio of argon and oxygen. To keep the organic hole transport material Spiro-OMeTAD on the perovskite, the organic material acts as a buffer layer so that the deposition of Cu/Cu2O does not damage the light absorbing layer perovskite. The mobilities of Cu/Cu2O are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the organic hole transport layers of Spiro-OMeTAD. In addition to helping the hole transport, it also isolates the organic material from direct contact with the external atmosphere and the metal electrode, effectively improving device efficiency and long-term stability.
The second part controlled the composition and thickness, the transmission and conductivity of the Cu/Cu2O composite electrode have been optimized for efficient perovskite solar cells. PCEs of 14.10% and 9.37% have been achieved for the bifacial-illuminated perovskite-based solar cell when the one sun AM1.5G illumination is incident from the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) side and Cu/Cu2O side, respectively. This result opens up the possibility for a bifacial-illuminated devices in combination with a power-generating window in the building-integrated photovoltaics.
The third part of the photodetector is to use a Cu/Cu2O as the carrier transfer electrode to directly replace the organic hole transport material and the metal electrode. This work reveals that the perovskite/(Cu/Cu2O) heterojunction photodetector a promising candidate for applications in bifacial-illuminated and flexible/wearable optoelectronic technologies.
Table of Contents VIII
List of Tables X
List of Figures XI
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Sun 1
1.2 What is solar cells? 2
1.3 Perovskite-based solar cell 4
1.4 Motivation and objectives 9
Chapter 2 Related theory and model 14
2.1 Air mass 14
2.2 Current-Voltage characteristics 15
2.3 Photodetector characteristics 17
Chapter 3 Experimental methods 18
3.1 Ion beam sputtering system 18
3.2 Pulsed laser deposition 20
3.3 Fabrication processes 23
3.4 Characterization and Measurement 25
Chapter 4 Cu/Cu2O nanocomposite films as a p-type modified layer for efficient perovskite solar cells 29
4.1 Introduction 29
4.2 Characterizations of the Cu/Cu2O composite films 31
4.3 Devices 39
4.4 Stability Test 43
4.5 Discussion 44
Chapter 5 Cu/Cu2O nanocomposite as a p-type transparent-conductive-oxide for efficient bifacial-illuminated perovskite solar cells 45
5.1 Introduction 45
5.2 Room temperature (~ 30 °C) processed Cu/Cu2O films 48
5.3 Bifacial-Illuminated Devices 54
5.4 Stability Test 61
5.5 Conclusions 62
Chapter 6 Double-side operable perovskite photodetector using Cu/Cu2O as a hole transport electrode 64
6.1 Introduction 64
6.2 Results and discussion 67
6.3 Double-side operable photodetector 73
6.4 Conclusions 81
Chapter 7 Research that has not been done 83
7.1 PLD grows CIGS solar material 83
Chapter 8 Conclusions and Future works 87
8.1 Conclusions and challenges 87
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