||Exploring the Adoption of Online Product Reviews via the Yale Model: Brand Commitment and Need-for-cognition as Moderators
||Department of Business Administration
隨著網路快速發展，消費者透過網路搜尋產品、服務資訊的情況已經逐漸普遍，網路產品評論往往提供特定品牌之產品資訊給消費者參考，而這些評論在網路的分享速度快、平台的方便性高及使用度頻繁等特性下，對於實質銷售產品、服務及企業形象都會產生其影響力。因此，網路評論對網路使用者的影響至今仍是值得探討的研究議題。本研究採用耶魯模型（The Yale Model）探討訊息（Message）特性、來源（Source）特性，以及訊息接收者（Receiver）特性之間在網路資訊傳遞過程中的互動關係，並針對上述特性進行延伸，訊息特性涵蓋平衡度、生動程度及分享次數；來源特性包括感知相似度；接收者特性為品牌承諾及認知需求，藉此以了解資訊對於訊息接收者的感知可信度與評論採納度的影響。本研究以推薦電腦作業系統升級至Windows 10的評論作為實驗設計之基礎，依據不同訊息特性設定8種情境，並共回收496份線上有效問卷。資料分析結果顯示訊息平衡度與生動程度對訊息接收者的感知可信度及評論採納度皆有正向的影響效果。在特定訊息情境下, 訊息接收者之品牌承諾及認知需求分別對感知可信度和評論採納度皆有干擾效果；其中，品牌承諾有強化訊息的效果，而認知需求則有弱化訊息的效果。另，感知相似度對於感知可信度及感知可信度對信息採納度皆有正面影響，也進而影響訊息接收者對評論採納的意願。最後，本研究提出對於網路評論之建議，公司經理人或評論人可針對閱讀人的特性提供合適的訊息內容，以提高訊息接收者對訊息的接受程度，並建立起消費者良好的品牌承諾，亦可強化評論的影響。
With the rapid development of the Internet, it has become a common trend for consumers to search for information about products or services online. Online product reviews are usually considered by consumers as references that provide handy information about a specific brand. The Internet enables quick sharing, easy access, and frequent usage of reviews. The spread of information online can then in turn impact the product, service and company image. Thus, the influence of online reviews on Internet users has now become a topic worth discussing. In this study, the Yale model was adopted to discuss the interaction of message (balance, vividness, number of shares), source (perceived similarity), and receiver (brand commitment and need-for-cognition) characteristics and their effects on perceived credibility and review adoption in the online environment. To test the message characteristics, an experimental design was developed that included eight online reviews scenarios that recommend the Windows 10 upgrade. Hence, "review adoption" in this study is defined as the acceptance of a review leading to an intention to upgrade to Windows 10 based on a belief that the review is credible. The questionnaires were distributed and collected through the Internet, with 496 valid responses. The results for data analysis suggested that there is a positive relationship between message balance/vividness and perceived credibility/review adoption. Brand commitment and need-for-cognition had moderating effects on message and perceived credibility as well as review adoption, where brand commitment strengthened and need-for-cognition weakened the effects, respectively. In addition, perceived similarity was positively related to perceived credibility, which then affected receivers’ willingness to upgrade based on the review. Finally, this study offered recommendations for online reviews. Companies or reviewers should provide the right information for the right consumers to enhance their acceptance of reviews. Companies should also help consumers establish brand commitment to a persuasive online review.
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objective 5
1.3 Research Process 5
Chapter 2 Theoretical Background 7
2.1 Yale model 8
2.2 Message Characteristics 12
2.2.1 Message Sidedness/Balance 13
2.2.2 Message Vividness 14
2.2.3 Number of shares 15
2.3 Receiver Characteristics 17
2.3.1 Brand Commitment 18
2.3.2 Need for cognition (NFC) 19
2.4 Source Characteristics 20
2.4.1 Perceived Similarity 21
2.5 Perceived Credibility 22
2.6 Review Adoption 23
2.7 Hypotheses Development 24
2.7.1 Message characteristics vs. Review adoption & Perceived credibility 24
2.7.2 Moderating effects of Brand commitment 27
2.7.3 Moderating effects of Need-for-cognition 28
2.7.4 Perceived similarity vs. Perceived credibility 30
2.7.5 Perceived credibility vs. Review adoption 31
Chapter 3 Methodology 32
3.1. Conceptual Framework 32
3.2 Constructs Definition and Hypotheses 33
3.2.1 Definition of Constructs 33
3.2.2 Hypotheses 35
3.3. Research and Questionnaire Design 37
3.3.1 Research Design 37
3.3.2 Questionnaire Design 40
3.4. Pilot Test 46
3.4.1 Manipulation check 46
3.4.2 Questionnaire 47
3.5 Data Analysis Procedure 51
3.5.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis 52
3.5.2 Factor Analysis 52
3.5.3 Reliability Analysis 52
3.5.5 Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) 53
3.5.6 Structural Equation Model 54
Chapter 4 Research Analyses and Results 55
4.1 Data Collection and Demographic analysis 55
4.2 Descriptive Analysis 56
4.3 Measurement Model Analysis 59
4.3.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) 59
4.3.2 Reliability Analysis and Convergent Validity 63
4.3.3 Discriminant Validity 64
4.4 Manipulation Check 65
4.5 Hypotheses Testing 66
4.5.1 Message characteristics vs. Perceived credibility & Review Adoption 66
4.5.2 Moderating effect of brand commitment and Need-for-cognition 69
4.5.3 Structural Model Analysis 77
4.5.4 Mediation role of perceived credibility 80
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendations 82
5.1 Discussion 82
5.1.1 Effect of Message Characteristics (H1a, H1b, H2a, H2b, H3a, H3b) 83
5.1.2 Moderating Role of Brand Commitment and Need-for-cognition (H4a, H4b, H5a, H5b) 85
5.1.3 Relationship between Perceived Similarity, Perceived Credibility and Review Adoption (H6 & H7) 88
5.2 Theoretical Implications 89
5.3 Managerial Implications 92
5.4 Limitations and Directions for Future Research 95
Appendix A: Scenarios 104
Appendix B: Questionnaire 115
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