進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-2907201611515400
論文名稱(中文) 重置式晶圓之翹曲模擬
論文名稱(英文) Warpage Simulation for Reconfigured Wafer
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 機械工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical Engineering
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 葉恩妤
研究生(英文) En-Yu Yeh
學號 N16034506
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 83頁
口試委員 指導教授-屈子正
口試委員-陳鐵城
口試委員-陳國聲
口試委員-張怡玲
中文關鍵字 重置式晶圓  封膠  黏彈性  翹曲 
英文關鍵字 fan-out  epoxy molding compound  viscoelastic  cure kinetics  chemical shrinkage 
學科別分類
中文摘要 晶圓級構裝在尺寸、電性、成本上的優勢剛好迎合消費性電子產品對於可攜式及多功能之需求因而成為手持式電子產品中主要零件之一,而散出型晶圓級構裝更因其重新建構晶圓製程可將數個晶片組合於同一封裝元件中達成系統級封裝的目的而受業界重視。散出型晶圓級構裝所面臨的挑戰之一為重置式晶圓之翹曲行為:由聚合物和金屬材料組成之封裝體在一連串的熱製程當中,其材料間熱膨脹係數之不匹配與高分子材料硬化過程中發生的收縮皆會導致翹曲的發生。電子封裝中的封膠複合材料為具有明顯之黏彈性行為之高分子材料且其機械性質多半與硬化度有關聯性,為了能準確的預測翹曲行為,正確的描述封裝體上材料的本構行為是必須的。
本文對不同製程條件的封膠材料進行評估,並對封膠材料進行黏彈性行為量測接著建構材料之黏彈本構模型,搭配其他元件之模型利用有限元素法模擬封裝體熱製程中之翹曲量,最後與數位影像相關量測實驗結果進行驗證。實驗中發現由於試件、機台的不同使得玻璃轉換溫度量測結果有極大差異,而在黏彈材料主曲線建構過程因實驗限制與人為因素造成之材料參數不匹配則可透過限制條件擬合之方式解決此問題。藉由模擬結果發現晶片佔重置式晶圓體積之比例會影響翹曲量,而在模擬過程中若未將封膠之玻璃轉換溫度統一將使得模擬結果準確度下降,另外化學老化效應對本文所探討之封膠影響極小且具黏彈性質之封膠材料可使翹曲量模擬結果更準確。
英文摘要 The warpage of a reconfigured wafer that consists of singulated silicon dies embedded in epoxy molding compound (EMC) under process thermal history is considered. Warpage of reconfigured wafer has a strong implication on the fan-out packaging technology because it would affect the yields of the subsequent wafer surface redistribution interconnect processes. During the wafer reconfiguration thermal processes, warpage is can be induced by the crosslinking reaction of the EMC, viscoelastic relaxation of the EMC under high temperature, and the thermal expansion mismatch between various packaging materials. For the purpose of predicting accurate warpage of reconfigured wafer after thermal history, a numerical prediction procedure that incorporates the models for the thermochemical cure kinetics, the chemical aging-induced shrinkage strains, and the cure-dependent viscoelastic relaxation modulus for molding compound was developed. Warpage simulation based the numerical procedure was compared to the experimentally obtained warpage results for validating the approach. From the comparison, it was found that the quality of the warpage prediction is strongly influenced by the accuracy of the glass transition temperature setting of the EMC model. From additional analyses, it was shown that the warpage is proportional to the volume percentage of Si die, and the chemical shrinkage of the EMC considered in this thesis has insignificant influence on warpage.
論文目次 摘要 I
英文延伸摘要 II
致謝 XI
目錄 XII
表目錄 XV
圖目錄 XVI
符號說明 XIX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 文獻回顧 4
1.2.1 散出型晶圓級構裝的翹曲挑戰 4
1.2.2 高分子材料黏彈行為 4
1.2.3 熱固性材料交聯反應 5
1.2.4 實驗與有限元素法模擬 7
1.3 研究方法 8
第二章 理論基礎 10
2.1 熱固性高分子材料之硬化反應 10
2.1.1 交聯反應動力學模型 10
2.1.2 交聯反應對熱固性高分子材料特性之影響 12
2.2 高分子材料之線黏彈性行為 13
2.2.1 線黏彈材料之基本數學模型 15
2.2.2 線黏彈行為之疊合原理 17
2.2.3 黏彈三維本構模型 19
2.2.4 線黏彈複數模數 21
2.2.5 時間—溫度疊合(time—temperature superposition; TTS)原理 23
2.2.6 時間—硬化重疊原理 25
2.3 黏彈材料函數數值轉換近似法 26
第三章 封膠材料特性量測與模型建立 29
3.1 試件製備 29
3.2 反應動力學 30
3.2.1 熱示差掃描分析實驗 30
3.2.2 反應動力學模型建立 35
3.3 黏彈性模數量測 37
3.3.1 封膠楊氏儲存模數量測 38
3.3.2 封膠剪切儲存模數量測 43
3.3.3 硬化度對材料性質的影響 45
3.4 黏彈性本構模型建立 46
3.4.1 平移函數 47
3.4.2 體積模數與蒲松比 50
3.4.3 模數擬合 51
3.5 材料之體積變化 56
3.5.1 溫度相關之熱膨脹係數 57
3.5.2 化學老化過程中的體積變化 58
第四章 有限元素模擬與翹曲驗證 60
4.1 有限元素模型 60
4.2 翹曲實驗量測 63
4.3 完全硬化封膠材料之模擬比較 66
4.3.1 晶片與封膠比例對模擬之影響 67
4.3.2 Tg對模擬之影響 70
4.3.3 封膠材料性質對模擬之影響 71
4.3.4 化學老化對模擬之影響 72
4.4 重置式晶圓之製程模擬 74
第五章 結論與未來研究 77
5.1 結論 77
5.2 未來研究 78
參考文獻 79


參考文獻 [1] 小桂,獨家解密:Info+16nm慿什麼打敗14nm?,來源:http://ic-garden.cn/?p=871
[2] F. Xuejun, "Wafer level packaging (WLP): Fan-in, fan-out and three-dimensional integration," in Thermal, Mechanical & Multi-Physics Simulation, and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE), 2010 11th International Conference on, pp. 1-7, 2010.
[3] 半導體科技雜誌,散出型晶圓級構裝(Fan-Out WLP)之技術與挑戰,來源: http://ssttpro.acesuppliers.com/semiconductor/Magazine_Details_Index_Id_1526.html
[4] M. Brunnbauer, T. Meyer, G. Ofner, K. Mueller, and R. Hagen,"Embedded Wafer Level Ball Grid Array (eWLB)," in Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium (IEMT), 2008 33rd IEEE/CPMT International, pp. 1-6, 2008.
[5] E. T. H. Kuah, J. Y. Hao, J. P. Ding, Q. F. Li, W. L. Chan, S. C. Ho, H. M. Huang and Y. J. Jiang, "Encapsulation challenges for wafer level packaging," in Microelectronics and Packaging Conference, 2009. EMPC 2009. European, pp. 1-6, 2009.
[6] "IME Technical Proposal- High Density FOWLP for Mobile Applications," AStar, Republic of Singapore, Apr. 2014.
[7] D. J. Plazek and I.-C. Chay,"The evolution of the viscoelastic retardation spectrum during the development of an epoxy resin network," Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, vol. 29, pp. 17-29, 1991.
[8] Y. K. Kim and S. R. White, "Stress relaxation behavior of 3501-6 epoxy resin during cure," Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 36, pp. 2852-2862, 1996.
[9] R. A. Schapery and S. W. Park, "Methods of interconversion between linear viscoelastic material functions. Part II—an approximate analytical method," International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 36, pp. 1677-1699, 1999.
[10] S. L. Simon, G. B. McKenna and O. Sindt, "Modeling the evolution of the dynamic mechanical properties of a commercial epoxy during cure after gelation," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 76, pp. 495-508, 2000.
[11] M. Sadeghinia, K. M. B. Jansen and L. J. Ernst, "Characterization of the viscoelastic properties of an epoxy molding compound during cure," Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 52, pp. 1711-1718, 2012.
[12] M. R. Kamal and S. Sourour, "Kinetics and thermal characterization of thermoset cure," Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 13, pp. 59-64, 1973.
[13] M. R. Kamal and M. E. Ryan, "The behavior of thermosetting compounds in injection molding cavities," Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 20, pp. 859-867, 1980.
[14] J. Mijović and R. C. Liang, "The effect of pressure and temperature on time-dependent changes in graphite/epoxy composites below the glass transition," Polymer Engineering & Science, vol. 24, pp. 57-66, 1984.
[15] D. J. Belton, "The Effect of Post-Mold Curling Upon the Microstructure of Epoxy Molding Compounds," Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 10, pp. 358-363, 1987
[16] R. R. Hill, S. V. Muzumdar and L. J. Lee, "Analysis of volumetric changes of unsaturated polyester resins during curing," Polymer Engineering & Science, vol. 35, pp. 852-859, 1995.
[17] H. K. Kung, A. Skontorp and S. S. Wang, "High-Temperature Physical and Chemical Aging in Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polyimide Composites: Experiment and Theory," in Recent Advances in Composite Materials, 1995 ASME Applied Mechanics and Materials Meeting, Los Angeles, MD Vol. 56, pp. 193-202, 1995.
[18] T.-C. Chiu, C.-L. Gung, H.-W. Huang and Y.-S. Lai, "Effects of Curing and Chemical Aging on Warpage—Characterization and Simulation," Device and Materials Reliability, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 11, pp. 339-348, 2011.
[19] G. Kelly, C. Lyden, W. Lawton, J. Barrett, A. Saboui, H. Pape and H. Peters, "The importance of molding compound chemical shrinkage in the stress and warpage analysis of PQFPs," in Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 1995. Proceedings., 45th, pp. 977-981, 1995.
[20] D. J. O'Brien, P. T. Mather and S. R. White, "Viscoelastic Properties of an Epoxy Resin during Cure," Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 35, pp. 883-904, May 15, 2001.
[21] N. W. Tschoegl, W. G. Knauss and I. Emri, "Poisson's Ratio in Linear Viscoelasticity – A Critical Review," Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials, vol. 6, pp. 3-51, 2002.
[22] R. B. R. v. Silfhout, J. G. J. Beijer, Z. Kouchi and W. D. van Driel, "Modelling methodology for linear elastic compound modelling versus visco-elastic compound modelling," in EuroSimE 2005. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanial and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Micro-Electronics and Micro-Systems, pp. 483-489, 2005.
[23] J. de Vreugd, K. M. B. Jansen, L. J. Ernst, C. Bohm, A. Kessler, and H. Preu, "Effects of Molding
Compound Cure on Warpage of Electronic Packages," in Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, 2008. EPTC 2008. 10th, pp. 675-682, 2008.
[24] R. Low and J. Wilde, "Comparison of bulk modulus determined by transient bulk creep experiment and direct optical measurement of poisson’s ratio," in Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Micro-Systems, 2008. EuroSimE 2008. International Conference on, pp. 1-6, 2008.
[25] T.-C. Chiu, D.-Y. Huang, B.-S. Lee, D.-L. Chen, P.-F. Yang, and C.-L. Kao, "Development of a consistent multiaxial viscoelastic model for package warpage simulation," in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) , 2015 IEEE 65th, pp. 373-379, 2015.
[26] 黃鴻瑋,電子構裝後硬化製程翹曲之模擬,國立成功大學,碩士論文,2008。
[27] 龔哲立,電子構裝封膠之黏彈性模型及其製程翹曲之模擬,國立成功大學,碩士論文,2008。
[28] 李博勝,環氧樹脂封膠材料黏彈本構模型建立及封裝翹曲模擬應用,國立成功大學,碩士論文,2014。
[29] 黃東藝,堆疊式封裝之封膠三維黏彈行為量測與翹曲模擬,國立成功大學,碩士論文,2014。
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-08-01起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-08-01起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw