||Investigation of Accumulated Stress Measurement Systems on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Force Running Wheel Platforms on Prevention of Ischemic Stroke
||Department of Electrical Engineering
infrared-sensed running wheel (ISRW)
adaptive accelerative training
animal ischemic stroke model
本研究以兩階段性開發預防心血管疾病之電子儀器系統。第一階段為評估階段的累積壓力量測系統，第二階段為預防腦中風階段的強迫式動物滾輪運動平台。壓力的累積是造成很多疾病的來源，尤其是心血管疾病(cardiovascular disease)。輕微者會產生慢性高血壓(hypertension), 嚴重者會產生缺血性腦中風(ischemic stroke)。因此，壓力累積的偵測與評估是預防心血管疾病，甚至預防腦中風發生的一個重要手段。本研究第一階段即研發一套融合多重生理感測器之可攜式健康保健系統，用以監測與評估個人壓力累積之指數。此系統整合了多樣的人體生理參數來量化壓力累積之程度。共進行21個生理參數的變化趨勢分析與比較，選出四個代表性的壓力累積生理參數：1) 心率，2) 心率變異性之低高頻比，3) 皮膚電導度，與4) 肝經諧波比例。並使用模糊理論來融合此四個生理參數進行壓力積累之量化。基於四個生理參之變化趨勢進行調整模糊規則以提高此系統的強健性(robustness)和可靠性(reliability)。由獨立樣本測試(subject-independent testing)之實驗結果顯示，本系統之壓力累積程度量測與社會調整評定量表(social readjustment rating scale; SRRS)之間有82％的相關性。
心血管疾病與腦中風之預防手段，除了時常檢測自己的壓力累積指數並適時地釋放壓力外，還需配合正常的生活習慣、規律的運動、飲食正常等，而運動已被公認為最健康且自然的預防方法。然而，有效的運動才是影響預防效果的其中關鍵因子，而此因子先前未被提出來研究。由第一階段研究中得知心理壓力會造成人體負面的生理反應。因此，本研究第二階段以動物為測試對象，開發一套具低心理壓力之高有效運動滾輪平台且利用紅外感應來評量有效運動量，並利用動物缺血性腦中風模型來驗證該平台的有效性。此紅外感應滾輪平台(infrared-sensing running wheel; ISRW)系統有別於傳統市售的動物跑步平台，包含幾個主要的設計與改善來提供更有效的運動訓練。一體成形的透明壓克力軌道(直徑x寬度: 55 cm x 15 cm)設計，搭配內舖具有高摩擦力的橡膠跑道，提供老鼠比傳統的馬達式滾輪(motorized running wheel; MRW)更寬敞與穩定的運動環境。滾輪驅動由外側邊緣的橡膠圓盤(直徑10 cm)利用摩擦力來帶動可以比傳統的由中心帶動更省力與更精確。此系統並依據老鼠之適應性加速曲線來做自動化跑步訓練，此方式比傳統的MRW更適合於高強度訓練。更特別的，四對紅外線模組被嵌入滾輪側邊用來偵測老鼠即時的運動位置，並由位置點來判定是否為有效運動區域，此為目前世界上第一個可定義有效運動之滾輪平台。實驗數據顯示此ISRW平台可有效應用於動物缺血性中風模型之預處理誘導神經的保護。更重要的，被提出的有效運動量化參數(QEIISRW)與腦阻塞體積(infarct volume)有92%的相關性。此有效運動量化參數可以做為日後一個客觀且非侵入式的臨床動物實驗之參考依據。且此ISRW平台可以高達98%的有效運動量，也反應於運動組別中最小的腦阻塞體積。因此，第二階段之ISRW結合了第一階段累積壓力的概念，成功地開發了一套以較低的心理壓力而達到較有效果的預防缺血性腦中風之運動平台。
The study uses two stages to develop electronic instruments for preventing cardiovascular disease. The first stage is the evaluating phase to study the accumulated stress measurement system, and the second stage is the accessing phase to develop the forced animal running wheel platform for the prevention of stroke. Cumulative stress is among the leading causes of many diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease. The minor symptom is the chronic hypertension, and an ischemic stroke is also produced with the severe accumulated stress. Therefore, the detection and evaluation of cumulative stress is an important means for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, even for the stroke. The first stage of this study developed a portable embedded multi-sensor fusion for point-of-care health-monitoring to evaluate the accumulated stress levels of affected people. The instrument integrates numerous human physiological parameters to quantify the level of accumulated stress. The trends of 21 physiological parameters were analyzed and compared, from which the following four physiological parameters were identified as being representative of the effective response to cumulative stress: 1) the heart rate, 2) the ratio of low- to high-frequency powers for heart rate variability, 3) the skin conductance level and 4) the liver harmonic proportion (i.e., the first harmonic of the peripheral blood volume pulse spectrum). Fuzzy logic rules were defined to quantify the accumulated stress level by combining the four physiological parameters. Subsequently, the observed trends of these four parameters were combined to enhance the robustness and the reliability of the proposed system by adjusting the applied fuzzy logic rules. The experimental results show an 82% correlation between the measured level of accumulated stress and the social readjustment rating scale obtained from subject-independent testing.
The preventive means of stroke related with cardiovascular disease not only tests the accumulated stress level and releases appropriately, but also has a usual normal habits such as regular exercise, eating properly, less smoking and drinking, etc. Exercise has been recognized as the most healthy and natural way to prevent cardiovascular disease. However, the effective exercise is one of the key factors of preventive efficacy, and this factor has not been studied before. The research of the first stage indicates that psychological stress causes a number of negative physiological consequences. Therefore, the second stage of the study uses animals as a testing subject and develops an animal running wheel with low psychological stress to achieve a higher effective prevention method for the ischemic stroke. Moreover, an infrared (IR)-sensing is used to access the effective exercise activity (EEA). Furthermore, the effectiveness of the platform was verified through a widely used animal ischemic stroke model. The IR-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system provides superior exercise training relative to commercially available traditional animal running platforms. An acrylic wheel of 55 cm diameter x 15 cm thickness, i.e. larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, is equipped with rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless while a DC motor with an axially-mounted 10 cm rubber wheel drives the acrylic wheel via friction. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. Additionally, four IR LED/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat’s real-time running position. The system is connected to a conventional PC which can record rat exercise behavior to hard disk and define EEA. This is the first running wheel platform that is capable of defining EEA in the world. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Importantly, the presented quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator (QEIISRW) shows an 92% correlation between increased effective exercise activity and decreased infarct volume. Therefore, this indicator can be used as a non-invasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments. The 98% effective exercise activity in the ISRW group corresponds with the smallest infarct volume among the exercise groups. Consequently, the ISRW integrates the concept of accumulated stress in the first stage to successfully develop a more effective exercise platform with a lower psychological stress for the prevention of animal ischemic stroke.
List of Figures IX
List of Tables XI
List of Acronyms XII
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Review of Related Work 2
1.3 Dissertation Contributions 9
1.4 Dissertation Organization 10
Chapter 2. System Implementation and Evaluation 12
2.1 Accumulated Stress Measurement System 12
2.1.1 Electronic Instrument Construction 13
2.1.2 Verification of ASMS 20
2.1.3 Experimental Results of ASMS 27
2.1.4 Summary of ASMS 37
2.2 Forced, Non-Electric-Shock Running Wheel 40
2.2.1 Design of FNESRW 41
2.2.2 Verification of FNESRW 51
2.2.3 Experimental Results of FNESRW 57
2.2.4 Summary of FNESRW 62
2.3 Infrared Sensed Running Wheel System 63
2.3.1 Design of ISRW 63
2.3.2 Verification of ISRW 70
2.3.3 Experimental Results of ISRW 73
2.3.4 Summary of ISRW 76
Chapter 3. Discussion 77
3.1 Effects of Psychological Stress 77
3.2 Effects of Effective Exercise Activity 78
3.3 Limitation of the traditional MRW 80
3.4 Comparison of Animal Exercise Platforms 81
Chapter 4. Conclusion and Future Development 86
4.1 Conclusion 86
4.2 Future Work and Development 87
Curriculum Vitae 99
Publication List 100
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