||Study on Glucose Concentration with Scattering Effect Based Upon Stokes-Mueller Polarimetry
||Department of Mechanical Engineering
Monte Carlo simulation
本研究提出了一種測量含散射效應之葡萄糖濃度之方式。由於糖尿病患者需要定時測量其體內血糖濃度以便監測病情發展，一套非侵入式、可攜帶的血糖監測系統能使患者有個安全、便利的病情監控機制。光旋性物質溶於水時會改變溶液的折射率，進而使其光學性質發生改變。因此，在溶液內之光旋性物質濃度與光散射係數之間可能有存在著一種物理相關性。在本研究中，我們將藉由史托克-穆勒偏光儀之量測機制，解出包含圓性雙折射 (CB)及去偏極化 (Dep)之穆勒矩陣。藉由比較由實驗中四道不同偏振狀態的入射光打入樣本而得的出射光以及本研究建構之反射穆勒矩陣模型之模擬，使用基因演算法求出兩者間差距最小之誤差，藉此量射出此混雜介質中的葡萄糖濃度及去偏極化。另外，使用蒙地卡羅模擬演算光於系統中打入待測物的偏振光學現象，對於複雜且具高散射特性的生物組織，能夠分析其光在待測物中之傳播行為，並獲得更多待測物之資訊，並結合現有根據偏光儀來分析謬勒矩陣與史托克參數之量測技術，可有效量測待測物之光學參數。此法是一個由巨觀的角度出發，利用機率與統計的方法，提供一個隨機模型的概念，使用大量亂數與機率分佈函數來研究光在生物組織中的傳播行為的方法。由於其嚴謹的考量光子移動的行為，且大量的隨機亂數使其具有統計意義，在生物醫學中被廣泛應用。
A new scheme to measure the glucose concentration with scatters by polarimetry is proposed. Diabetics would benefit greatly from a device capable of providing continuous noninvasive monitoring of their blood glucose levels. The presence of optical activity object dissolved in an aqueous solution modifies the refractive index of the solution and therefore has an influence on the optical properties. Hence a physical correlation may exist between the optical scattering coefficient and concentration of optical activity substance. In this study, the measuring technique based on the Stokes-Mueller polarimetry to solve the Mueller matrices of a complex sample containing CB and depolarization is developed. Output Stokes vectors of four incident polarization states obtained from experiment can be compare to the corresponding value of the simulated Stokes vector, the difference is set as error function. Appling genetic algorithm, the minimum error can be found, the circular birefringence and depolarization which relate to the concentrations of glucose and scattering events in turbid media can be extracted, too. In addition, the Monte Carlo simulation can be used to numerically solve the problem of light propagation in turbid media. This method relies on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results. The optical properties of interest are obtained from the statistical average of the photon properties. It is widely used in biomedical research to analyze propagation of light through the tissue.
Table of Contents vi
List of Figures ix
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Preface 1
1.2 Review of the Glucose Monitoring 3
1.3 Review of the General Ellipsometry 7
1.4 Review of Mueller Matrix Method in Ellipsometer 10
1.5 Review of Glucose Sensing Using Optical Polarimetry and Stokes Mueller Polarimetry 13
1.6 Review of the Monte Carlo Method 14
1.7 Overview of Chapters 15
Chapter 2 Theoretical Analysis of Mueller Matrices 16
2.1 Principle of ellipsometry measurement 16
2.2 Stokes-Mueller Representation 19
2.3 Circular Birefringence and Depolarization 22
2.3.1 Circular Birefringence Materials 22
2.3.2 Depolarization Mueller Matrix of Scattering Media 25
2.4 Mueller Matrix Model of the Circular Birefringence Sample 27
2.4.1 Light propagation in pure glucose solution 28
2.4.2 Mueller Matrices Representation of Interfaces 29
2.5 Decomposition of Circular Birefringence and Depolarization 30
Chapter 3 Simulation Results of Glucose Extraction by the Stokes-Mueller Polarimeter 33
3.1 Genetic Algorithm Model 33
3.2 Glucose Extraction by Genetic Algorithm (GA) 37
3.3 Simulation Result of Glucose Extraction from Tissue Simulating Phantom 40
Chapter 4 Experiment Setup and Results discussion 42
4.1 Experiment of glucose extraction by Stokes-Mueller Polarimetry 42
4.1.1 Experiment Setup of Stokes-Mueller Polarimeter 42
4.1.2 tissue simulating sample & optical rotation angle 44
4.2 Experiment Result of Glucose Extraction from Pure Glucose Solution 46
4.3 Experiment Result of Glucose Extraction from Tissue Simulating Phantom 49
Chapter 5 Polarization State of Light Simulated by Monte Carlo Method 54
5.1 Simulation of Propagation of Light in Turbid Media by Monte Carlo Multi Layer 54
5.2 Monte Carlo Method Including Polarization State of Light 61
5.3 Simulation Result of the Polarized Monte Carlo Program 64
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work 66
6.1 Conclusions 66
6.2 Future Work 67
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