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論文名稱(中文) 考量策略性顧客及投機商之損耗性商品動態定價研究
論文名稱(英文) Dynamic Pricing for Perishable Products with a Speculator and Strategic Customers
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業與資訊管理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial and Information Management
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 顧宇豪
研究生(英文) Yu-Hao Gu
學號 R36981190
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 71頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃宇翔
口試委員-陳正綱
口試委員-洪大為
口試委員-黃仲正
中文關鍵字 損耗性商品  策略性顧客  投機商  動態定價  賽局理論 
英文關鍵字 Game Theory  Strategic Consumer  Speculator  Perishable Products  Dynamic Pricing 
學科別分類
中文摘要 網際網路的快速發展便利了資訊的分享與傳遞,顧客可以輕易地透過很多管道獲取產品資訊,因此對於價格的敏感性也就越來越高,他們會注意公司的定價策略並開始產生一些策略性的行為。而產品資訊的透明化使得一些產量較少或是本身較受歡迎的商品出現可以投機的機會,當投機商人預期需求會大於供給時,便會進行買低賣高的套利行為以獲取利益。當販售損耗性商品的零售商將這兩種特殊購買者納入考量時,以往的高價格定價策略便無法有效地為公司獲取最大的利益,於是零售商要如何在面對策略性顧客與投機商的情況下進行商品定價,便是一個值得探討的問題。
本研究假設消費族群是由短視近利顧客、策略性顧客、折扣取向顧客及投機商所組成,而一獨佔零售商販賣單期之損耗性商品,用後推式推導程序(Backward induction procedure)來討論零售商、策略性顧客與投機商之間的競爭情形與最佳決策結果。零售商制定定價策略時,須考量策略性顧客及投機商等因素,以決定該如何調整價格能最大化公司獲利,而投機商與策略性顧客則會根據零售商訂定的價格,再依本身的評估做決策。本研究利用賽局模式分析,俾雙方在進行決策時能多方考量其決策結果對本身獲利的影響及了解彼此應如何回應對方決策,以避免訂定出來的結果不符合原先期望之效益。本研究利用性質分析討論參數間的關係對於決策的影響,可提供零售商做決策執行之參考,並透過實例分析以驗證本研究所建立之賽局模式,探討不同需求情況下,其通路成員決策結果間的差異與關係。研究發現投機商在市場中扮演著類似動態定價的角色,在特定情況下能降低零售商的風險,並指出對於零售商而言,投機商的存在是有利而無害。
英文摘要 This paper deals with the pricing problem in which a monopolistic retailer sells a single period perishable product with a fixed capacity. Consumers considered in this study are divided into three types: (1) myopic consumers who always purchase the product at an initial price; (2) bargain-hunting consumers who purchase the product only when the price of the product is sufficiently low; and (3) strategic consumers who strategically choose when to purchase the product. A strategic consumer chooses between an instaneous purchase at the initial price and a later purchase at an uncertain price which may be a markup or a markdown price. Except these three kinds of consumers, there is a speculator in the market. The speculator may enter the market purely with the intention of resale, which can be profitable if the demand is high. Consumers may purchase either from the retailer or from the speculator for a lower price. We characterize equilibrium prices and profits for the firm and the speculator. There are two major findings. First, the presence of the speculator increases the retailer’s expected profits. Second, because of the existence of the speculator, the retailer can mimic a dynamic pricing outcome while charging a fixed price. This paper also considers several scenarios with different market factors, and the results show that the retailer should carefully determine the sale price when facing both strategic consumers and speculators.
論文目次 摘要 II
Abstract III
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
圖表目錄 VI
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機 2
第三節 研究目的 3
第四節 研究範圍與重要性 3
第五節 研究流程 4
第六節 論文架構 5
第二章 文獻探討 6
第一節 損耗性商品 6
第二節 策略性顧客及投機商 7
一、策略性顧客之定義 7
二、投機商之定義 9
三、策略性顧客之因應 9
第三節 動態定價 11
第四節 賽局理論 13
一、賽局理論概述 13
二、賽局理論應用於動態定價 14
第三章 單一零售商與單一投機商之競爭模式 16
第一節 問題描述 16
第二節 研究架構 18
第三節 研究步驟 22
第四章 性質與應用分析 49
第一節 性質分析 49
第二節 實例說明與結果分析 57
第五章 結論與建議 63
第一節 研究貢獻 63
第二節 研究限制 64
第三節 未來研究方向 65
參考文獻 66
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英文部分
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