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系統識別號 U0026-2904201114424600
論文名稱(中文) 台灣及香港海域珊瑚骨骼季節至百年尺度氣候與環境記錄
論文名稱(英文) Seasonal to Centennial-Scale Climatic and Environmental Variability Recorded in Corals from Taiwan and Hong Kong
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 王博賢
研究生(英文) Bo-Shian Wang
電子信箱 l4894105@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 l4894105
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 221頁
口試委員 指導教授-游鎮烽
口試委員-羅尚德
口試委員-何東垣
口試委員-李紅春
口試委員-何恭算
中文關鍵字 珊瑚  海水pH  海洋汙染  硼同位素  鉛同位素 
英文關鍵字 Coral  seawater pH  Marine pollution  Boron isotope  Lead isotope 
學科別分類
中文摘要 造礁珊瑚骨骼的地球化學組成靈敏地反映礁區鄰近淺海環境變化,對於過去的氣候與海洋化學變化具有重要指標意義。為獲取更貼近自然的訊息,本研究首先發展一套符合實驗需求的標本清洗、化學前處理,乃至元素與硼、鉛同位素分析技術(第二章及附錄),並以此為基礎,應用於三支不同時間尺度的Porites屬珊瑚岩芯研究(先以一支綠島珊瑚岩芯、三年時間尺度作為測試,另外綠島及香港各有一支逾百年記錄的岩芯作為回推過去歷史的題材)。本文第三章著重於香港東岸淺海溶解態鋁、鋅及鉛濃度的時間序列變化。根據化學組成的變化,除了在二十世紀初期的海水溶解態鋁受造船工業影響而升高外,每逢戰爭時期,溶解態鋁濃度亦有明顯升高趨勢,然而鋅與鉛的變化則主要反映區域的工業活動;另外,近代的汙染源則主要來自中國南方的工業區。
延伸此章的概念於一支綠島北方的珊瑚岩芯(129年尺度),第五章使用鉛/鈣比值搭配鉛同位素示蹤技術。對應當地圍岩與氣溶膠鉛同位素組成,十九世紀末綠島北方的近岸海水的鉛主要由大氣輸入,而藉由當地圍岩化學風化而攜帶至海洋的鉛的比例則較低。然而,在使用含鉛汽油的時期(1920至1980年代),海水鉛濃度明顯提高(珊瑚鉛鈣比值升高),原本呈現區域特徵的鉛同位素訊號(亞洲-澳洲型分布)也明顯混入了源自北美的鉛(添入汽油的鉛錠)。為了解過去的海洋化學變化,第四章將所分析的珊瑚骨骼硼同位素轉換為pH指標。依據季節性珊瑚骨骼鍶鈣比值及氧、碳同位素為參考,間接驗證主控硼同位素組成變化的因子為海水pH值,因而忽略溫度及珊瑚共生藻對於硼同位素的影響;此假設與實驗室養殖的研究結果相符(Hönisch et al., 2004)。本研究遂此重建立了綠島北方逾百年的表層海水歷史pH變化。結果顯示,海洋酸化在台灣東部海域並未呈現海洋酸化(石化工業排放二氧化碳所致)的趨勢;反之,藉頻譜分析結果,其長期的變化與週期約數十年的太平洋準週期氣候振盪(PDO,約45年為周期)有密切關聯。有趣的是,綠島珊瑚骨骼硼同位素和珊瑚海(Pelejero et al., 2005)及澳洲大堡礁(Wei et la., 2009)的珊瑚骨骼硼同位素記錄呈現反向趨勢的變化,反映了南北半球對稱性的氣候變化反應。
英文摘要 Scleractinian coral geochemistry reflects sensitively the change of shallow marine environment, which implies further the past environmental conditions such as climate and seawater chemistry. This work first developed experimental and analytical methodologies for coral sample pretreatments, trace elements and boron and lead isotope ratio measurements (Chapter 2 and Appendices). These fundamental preparations were further applied on one short (3-year long record) and two centennial-long Porites coral cores. Chapter 3 characterizes the secular variability of coral skeleton incorporated metallic ions aluminum (Al), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in eastern Hong Kong. Higher Al concentrations coincide tightly with the local war events associated with the dockyard industries held during the early 20th century, while Zn and Pb were probably released mainly by industrial activities. By contrast, the major contaminants are recently contributed from the southern China industrial areas.
Furthermore, a continuous study is carried out in a 129-year Lutao coral core (Chapter 5) based upon Pb/Ca ratio and lead isotope tracer. According to the bedrock and aerosol Pb isotope compositions, atmospheric deposition is preferred to contribute dissolved Pb in northern Lutao reef seawater rather than release from bedrock via chemical weathering during the late 19th century. However, the Pb/Ca results reveal considerable Pb input appear during the period of leaded gasoline (1920s to 1980s). This observation corresponds to the Pb isotope signature that the dominant local inputs (Asian-to-Australian type) in early stage was replaced by the exterior invasion (U.S.-Canadian type). Finally, temporal variation of seawater pH is drawn in Chapter 4 based on boron isotope data. The seasonal variation of δ11B, with slight heavier in wet seasons, is decoupled with Sr/Ca ratio and oxygen and carbon isotopes, by which temperature and symbiotic effects on boron isotope are further ruled out. This observation is consistent with the observation of coral culturing experiments that pH is the dominant factor on changing coralline δ11B (Hönisch et al., 2004). Based upon this a centennial-long coral collected from northern Lutao was developed. Unlike the expected ‘ocean acidification’ as a result of excessively industrial releasing of carbon dioxide (CO2), the reconstructed pH (by boron isotope) displays decadal fluctuation, corresponding to the frequency of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO, ~ 45 years). Interestingly, the δ11B record fluctuates oppositely to those from the Coral Sea (Pelejero et al., 2005) and the Great Barrier Reef (Wei et al., 2009), as a result of hemispheric climatic dipole structure.
論文目次 Signature Page……………………………………………………………………….. II
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………..... III
Abstract (English)….……………………………………………………………….....V
Abstract (Chinese)……………………………………………………………….….VII
Table of content……………………………………………………………….…...…IX
List of figures and tables………………………………………………………...…XIV

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Overview of current study………………………………………………………1
1.1.1 Trace element incorporation into coral skeletons………...………………3
1.1.2 Boron in seawater and coral skeletons…………………………………...6
1.1.3 Lead in seawater and coral skeletons…………………………………...12
1.2 Objectives…...…………………………………………………………………15
1.3 Statement of contribution……………………………………………………...16
Chapter 2. Materials and methods
2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………20
2.2 Coral sampling………………………………………………………………...20
2.2.1 Coral core collection and sectioning (Lutao cores)……………………….20
2.2.2 Imaging……………………………………………………………………21
2.2.3 Structural composition……………………………………………………22
2.2.4 Sub-sampling……………………………………………………………...22
2.3 Chemical cleaning……………………………………………………………..23
2.4 Elemental determination and isotope ratio analyses…………………………..24
2.5 Age modeling and error estimation…………………………………………....26
2.6 Results and summary………………………………………………………….29
Chapter 3. Al, Zn and Pb in a Hong Kong Porites coral core
3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………....34
3.1.1 Marine trace metals……………………………………………………….34
3.1.2 Hong Kong pollution history……………………………………………...34
3.2 Materials and methods………………………………………………………...36
3.2.1 Study area……………………………………………………………..…..36
3.2.2 Sampling and analytical method………………………………………….37
3.2.3 Coral-subsampling and analysis……………………………………..……37
3.2.4 Age model development……………………………………………….….40
3.3 Results………………………………………………………………………....41
3.4 Discussion………………………………………………………………….….43
3.4.1 Local trace metals to Hong Kong (before 1950)…………...……………..43
3.4.2 Local trace metals to Hong Kong (after 1950)……...……...……………..47
3.4.3 Temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved Pb………………………..48
3.5 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………52
Chapter 4. Boron isotope in scleractinian corals
4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………....58
4.2 Methods…………………………………………………………………….….61
4.2.1 Study area…………………………………………………………………61
4.2.2 Water chemistry…………………………………………………………...62
4.2.3 Coral sampling and pre-treatment………………………………………...64
4.2.4 Elemental ratio determinations………………………………………...….65
4.2.5 Boron isotope determinations………………………………………..……66
4.2.6 Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses……………………………………...67
4.3 Results……………………………………………………………………..…..68
4.3.1 Short-term chemical and isotopic records……………………………...…68
4.3.2 Long-term B/Ca, Sr/Ca and δ11B variation……………………………….77
4.4 Discussions and conclusions……………………………………………….….78
4.4.1 Possible factors affecting boron isotopic compositions…………………..78
4.4.2 Oxygen and carbon isotopic variations………………………………...…82
4.4.3 Relationship between boron isotope and seawater CO2 fugacity………....84
4.4.4 Decadal variability in Lutao coral δ11B…………………………………...89
Chapter 5. Lead and its isotope variations in the western tropical Ocean
5.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………99
5.2 Materials and methods……………………………………………………….102
5.3 Results………………………………………………………………………..103
5.4 Discussion………………………………………………………………...….107
5.4.1 Surface seawater Pb level estimation………………………………...….107
5.4.2 Spatial and temporal distribution of coralline Pb/Ca…………………....109
5.4.3 Transient changes in Pb sources input during 1870s to 1990s…………..111
5.5 Conclusions……………………………………………………………..……116
Chapter 6. Concluding remarks……………………………...………………...…121
Appendix 1. Element/Ca ratios in coral skeletons using SF-ICP-MS
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………….…...125
2. Instrumentation……………………………………………………………..….125
2.1 Preparation of standards and samples…………………………………..…126
2.2 Analytical method………………………………………………………....128
2.3 Elemental analysis…………………………………………………………129
Appendix 2. Boron isotope analysis by P-TIMS
1. Laboratory chemical preparation………………………...…………………….139
2. Experimental and boron isotopic ratio measurement………………………….140
3. Boron isotopic ratio measurements of standards………………………………142
4. Inter-laboratory calibration…………………………………………………….146
Appendix 3. Boron isotope analysis using MC-ICP-MS
1. Introduction……...…………………………………………………………….151
2. Experimental……………………………………….………………………….153
2.1 Operating conditions, reagents and doping test……………………...…….153
2.2 Sample preparation……………………………………………………...…154
2.3 Micro-sublimation…………………………………………………………154
2.4 Column separation of boron……………………………………………….155
2.5 Mass spectrometry…………………………………………………………155
3. Results and discussion……………………………………………………..…..158
3.1 Blank contribution and interference……………………………………….158
3.2 Mass bias correction in MC-ICP-MS analysis…………………………….159
3.3 Micro-sublimation test………………………………………………….…162
3.3.1 Working duration and yield…………………………………………...162
3.3.2 Effect of pH………………………………………………………..….163
3.4 MC-ICP-MS and TIMS cross-calibration………………………………....167
4. Conclusions…………………………………………………………………....172
Appendix 4. Lead Isotope analysis using MC-ICP-MS
1. Purification of Pb from sample matrix……...……………………………....…175
2. Correction mass discrimination of Pb isotopes using thallium……………..…177
3. Preparation of 207Pb-204Pb double-spike……………………………………….184
References………………………………………………………………………….188
Vita…………………………………………………………………………………i
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