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系統識別號 U0026-2901201313023000
論文名稱(中文) 平板電腦之虛擬鍵盤使用性評估與人機介面改善
論文名稱(英文) The usability evaluation and HCI improvement of virtual keyboard for Tablet
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊管理研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Information Management
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 洪瑞鴻
研究生(英文) Ruei-Hung Hung
學號 R76991020
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 113頁
口試委員 口試委員-吳豐光
口試委員-張哲豪
指導教授-林明毅
中文關鍵字 平板電腦  虛擬鍵盤  肌電圖  電子量角器 
英文關鍵字 tablet PC  virtual keyboard  electromyographic  goniometer 
學科別分類
中文摘要 平板電腦可望成為下一世代新的電腦資訊產品,其對原本的產業生態、消費者使用習慣與人機互動方式帶來新的改變。除此之外,平板電腦雖然具有方便與可攜性的特色,但它可能帶來與健康相關方面不良的邊際效應問題是值得關注的議題。但在人因工程方面的研究,對於新型平板電腦的設計概念可能對使用者造成的健康相關效應認知仍然不足,需要更多實驗性研究資料來佐證。另外,在多項消費者市場調查結果指出,平板電腦遭受最多使用者批評的就是在文字輸入作業上的不便利性,而是否可經由人機介面的改善解決此問題呢?
因此,本研究目的在於以人因工程的角度,探討使用者在常見的使用姿勢(標準打字姿勢與床墊作業姿勢)與平板電腦的人機互動情形。同時,針對虛擬鍵盤進行不同的介面配置設計(標準、寬間距式與人因分離式鍵盤),以評估是否可以經由改善虛擬鍵盤的介面排列方式,來提升產品的使用性同時降低使用者肌肉骨骼系統的負擔。除了透過易用性評估量表與肌肉疲勞自覺量表外,經由自行開發的應用軟體程式進行易用性分析,並透過肌電圖量測屈指淺肌、伸指肌、頸豎脊肌、上斜方肌與胸鎖乳突肌,同時,也利用電子量角器測量手腕、手肘及頸部的角度,作進一步的量化分析。
研究結果顯示,虛擬鍵盤的介面配置,對於易用性指標、肌電圖與手腕尺/橈偏角度有顯著性的影響,整體而言,使用人因分離式鍵盤,其打字績效表現較佳,手腕尺/橈偏角度也最接近正中姿勢。此外,使用床墊姿勢手腕伸展的角度明顯高出標準姿勢許多,兩者間的角度差距超過20度。再者,使用標準打字姿勢,頸豎脊肌與上斜方肌的負荷比床墊姿勢還大。另外,性別之間肌肉負荷強度也有所不同,研究結果顯示,女生在屈指淺肌、上斜方肌及胸鎖乳突肌的負荷強度都比男生還高,同樣地,相較之下女生手腕尺偏角度及活動度(ROM)也比男生高。除此此外,發現使用者長時間打字時,在易用性指標及電子量角器測量的指標上也有顯著性的變化。
英文摘要 Tablet PC is expected to become the next generation of new computer and information technology products. Its prevalence brings new changes to industrial ecology, consumer habits and human-computer interaction. The convenience and portability popularized by Tablet PC, however, may cause potential health-related problems. Moreover, it has been showed in several consumer market surveys that the current generations of Tablet PC trends to produce unpleasant user experiences during conventional typing activities.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the interaction between user and Tablet PC during text-entry tasks while assumed two common postures (standard posture and bed-sitting posture). Three different types of the interface design for virtual keyboard (standard, wide-spacing, split style) were evaluated with respect to the usability and physical burdens on users' musculoskeletal system. Typing performance matrices and self-perceived evaluations were recorded, along with electromyographic signals from flexor digitorum superficialis(FDS), extensor digitorum communis(EDC), cervical erector spinae(CES), upper trapezius(UT) and sternocleidomastoid(SCM). On the same time, the variation of upper-limb body joints during the experiment were simultaneously measured in aid of comprehensive evaluation.
The results showed that the virtual keyboard design has significant impacts on muscular activities and wrist posture. Overall, split keyboard is better in terms of typing performance and the resulting wrist radial/ulnar deviation is closet to neutral posture. Furthermore, when using the bed-sitting posture the wrist extension was significantly higher than that of standard posture by more than 20 degrees. On the contrary, the physical load experienced in CES and UT larger in standard posture, females tend to have higher exertion in the FDS, UT and SCM and prone to deviate their wrists to the ulnar side.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 10
1.1 研究背景與動機 10
1.2 研究目的 11
1.3 研究流程架構 12
第二章 文獻探討 13
2.1 使用性 13
2.1.1 使用性定義 13
2.1.2 使用性評估 13
2.1.3 使用性評估方法 14
2.2 電腦與鍵盤人因設計問題 16
2.2.1 電腦行動裝置設計 16
2.2.2 鍵盤種類設計 17
2.2.3 按鍵配置設計 18
2.3 肌肉骨骼系統傷害 19
2.3.1 性別因素 19
2.3.2 使用姿勢 20
2.3.3 重複性與累積性傷害 21
2.4 肌肉疲勞 21
2.4.1 肌肉疲勞肌電訊號指標 21
2.4.2 肌電圖 22
2.4.3 雙軸電子量角器 24
第三章 研究方法 26
3.1 打字記錄軟體(I-TYPINGRECORD)開發工具 26
3.1.1 i-TypingRecord軟體介面設計 26
3.1.2 虛擬鍵盤排列模式設計 27
3.1.3 i-TypingRecord測量變項 29
3.2 平板電腦虛擬鍵盤人機互動實驗 31
3.2.1 研究對象 31
3.2.2 平板電腦操作姿勢 32
3.2.3 實驗設計 35
3.2.4 實驗變項 36
3.3 實驗工具 37
3.3.1 前測階段的測試用電腦與打字軟體 37
3.3.2 肌電圖量測儀器(electromyography) 38
3.3.3 雙軸電子量角器(goniometer) 39
3.3.4 肌肉疼痛自覺量表 40
3.3.5 系統易用性量表 41
3.3.6 實驗流程 42
第四章 結果 44
4.1 受試者基本資料 44
4.2 易用性指標分析結果 45
4.3 肌電圖測量結果 47
4.3.1 左屈指淺肌 47
4.3.2 左伸指肌 48
4.3.3 右屈指淺肌 49
4.3.4 右伸指肌 50
4.3.5 上斜方肌、頸豎脊肌與胸鎖乳突肌 51
4.3.6 時間效應的影響 51
4.3.7 肌電圖指標整體一小時的斜率分析 51
4.4 電子量角器量測結果 54
4.4.1 手腕橈/尺偏角度的比較 54
4.4.2 手腕屈曲/伸展角度的比較 56
4.4.3 手肘屈曲/伸展角度的比較 58
4.4.4 頸部屈曲/伸展角度的比較 59
4.4.5 時間效應的影響 60
4.5 性別間的比較 69
4.5.1 易用性指標的分析比較 69
4.5.2 肌電圖測量結果的比較 70
4.5.2.1 屈指淺肌與伸指肌測量結果 70
4.5.2.2 上斜方肌、頸豎脊肌與胸鎖乳突肌測量結果 71
4.5.3 電子量角器測量結果的比較 72
4.6 肌肉疼痛自覺量表分析結果 80
4.7 系統易用性量表分析結果 85
第五章 討論 87
第六章 結論與建議 97
參考文獻 98
附錄一、受試者個人基本資料 109
附錄二、受試者同意書 111
附錄三、系統易用性量表 112

表目錄
表3-1 標準英文打字法定義 31
表3-2 使用平板電腦常用姿勢 32
表3-3 BORG CR-10自覺量表 41
表4-1 受試者個人基本資料 44
表4-2 易用性績效指標分析結果- 整體一小時的分析 46
表4-3 易用性績效指標分析結果 - 針對時間效應 47
表4-4 肌電時域RMS百分位數指標分析結果- 左屈指淺肌 48
表4-5 肌電時域RMS百分位數指標分析結果- 左伸指肌 49
表4-6 肌電圖時域RMS百分位數標分析結果- 右屈指淺肌 50
表4-7 肌電圖時域RMS百分位數標分析結果- 右伸指肌 50
表4-8 肌電圖時域RMS百分位數標分析結果- 上斜方肌、頸豎脊肌、胸鎖乳突肌 53
表4-9 肌電圖時域RMS之正斜率比例- 屈指淺肌與伸指肌 54
表4-10 肌電圖時域RMS之正斜率比例- 上斜方肌、頸豎脊肌與胸鎖乳突肌 54
表4-11 左手腕部位橈/尺偏角度量化數據比較 55
表4-12 右手腕部位橈/尺偏角度量化數據比較 56
表4-13 左手腕部位屈曲/伸展角度量化數據比較 57
表4-14 右手腕部位屈曲/伸展角度量化數據比較 58
表4-15 右手肘伸展/屈曲角度量化數據比較 59
表4-16 頸部伸展/屈曲角度量化數據比較 60
表4-17 標準打字姿勢下手腕橈/尺偏角度變化的數據比較 61
表4-18 床墊作業姿勢下手腕橈/尺偏角度變化的數據比較 62
表4-19 標準打字姿勢下手腕屈曲/伸展角度變化的數據比較 63
表4-20 床墊作業姿勢下手腕屈曲/伸展角度變化的數據比較 64
表4-21 標準姿勢與床墊姿勢手肘屈曲/伸展角度變化的數據比較 65
表4-22 標準姿勢與床墊姿勢頸部屈曲/伸展角度變化的數據比較 66
表4-23 手腕橈/尺偏角度之APDF RANGE變化的數據比較 67
表4-24 手腕屈曲/伸展角度之APDF RANGE變化的數據比較 68
表4-25 手肘與頸部屈曲/伸展角度之APDF RANGE變化的數據比較 69
表4-26 標準打字姿勢下屈指淺肌與伸指肌的肌肉負荷數據比較 70
表4-27 床墊姿勢下屈指淺肌與伸指肌的肌肉負荷數據比較 71
表4-28 頸豎脊肌、上斜方肌與胸鎖乳突肌的肌肉負荷數據比較 72
表4-29 標準打字姿勢下手腕橈/尺偏角度變化的數據比較 73
表4-30 標準打字姿勢下手腕屈曲/伸展角度變化的數據比較 74
表4-31 床墊作業姿勢下手腕橈/尺偏角度變化的數據比較 75
表4-32 床墊作業姿勢下手腕屈曲/伸展角度變化的數據比較 76
表4-33 標準打字與床墊作業姿勢手肘屈曲角度變化的數據比較 78
表4-34 標準打字與床墊作業姿勢頸部屈曲角度變化的數據比較 79
表4-35 標準打字姿勢之肌肉疼痛自覺量表(I) 81
表4-36 標準打字姿勢之肌肉疼痛自覺量表(II) 82
表4-37 床墊作業姿勢之肌肉疼痛自覺量表(I) 83
表4-38 床墊作業姿勢之肌肉疼痛自覺量表(II) 84
表4-39 標準鍵盤、寬間距式鍵盤與人因鍵盤之系統易用性量表 86

圖目錄
圖2-1 振幅與頻率合併分析(JASA)圖 24
圖3-1 I-TYPINGRECORD軟體介面設計示意圖 26
圖3-2 I-TYPINGRECORD測驗畫面設計示意圖 27
圖3-3 傳統標準鍵盤 27
圖3-4 模擬人因分離式鍵盤設計 28
圖3-5 寬間距式鍵盤 29
圖3-6 停置時間示意圖 30
圖3-7 間隔時間示意圖 30
圖3-8 標準打字姿勢 34
圖3-9 床墊姿勢 35
圖3-10 虛擬鍵盤排列實驗設計示意圖 36
圖3-11 打字測試軟體- TYPINGMASTER PRO V7.0 37
圖3-12 無線資料擷取系統- BIORADIO 150 SYSTEM 38
圖3-13 軟體分析工具- SCIWORKS 38
圖3-14 軟式電子量角器及系統圖 40
圖3-15 實驗流程圖 43
圖5-1 頸部屈曲角度與頸豎脊肌負荷量關係變化圖(I) 90
圖5-2 頸部屈曲角度與頸豎脊肌負荷量關係變化圖(II) 91
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