||Developing the Association-Based Vocabulary Learning Strategy with the Support of Meaningful Word Expansion
||Department of Engineering Science
Natural language processing
近代，關聯式學習策略著重在教導學生連結過去所學知識在新知識的學習上。此策略被證實比強調死記硬背的機械式學習法(rote learning)有更好的記憶效果(retention)與更利於吸收新知識。對於需要不斷反覆習得大量字彙的英語學習中，此關聯式策略預期將可以有效地提升學生的字彙學習成就。但此關聯式字彙學習策略，在過去並沒有受到研究者與英文教師的注意。例如學生最常使用的記筆記學習策略裡，字彙往往還是被記錄成獨立的個體來背誦。學生本身對於如何有意義地組織大量字彙也感到的困惑。因此本論文提出一個研究架構試圖探討關聯式字彙學習策略的成效與實行此策略可能遇到的困難。此架構主要包含兩個部分:有字彙擴展輔助與無字彙擴展輔助的關聯式策略教導。無輔助的關聯策略教導中，本論文引入連結式組織法(link-based format)來輔助學生記單字筆記。此組織法將與傳統的列點式組織法(list-based format)比較。對於有輔助的關聯式策略教導中，本論文主要提供兩種字彙擴展輔助技術來幫助學習者有意義地連結相關字彙: 分別是形似近義相關字推薦與情境相關字推薦。透過三個實驗的研究資料收集，本研究不僅提供英語教師應用此策略於教學現場的實用建議，還給予後續對此策略實行有興趣的研究者一個研究探索藍圖。
A large and varied vocabulary is essential for communicative competence; however, its acquisition is an endless process and often creates insurmountable difficulties for language learners. Recording words in a vocabulary notebook can facilitate this challenging but critical job. Keeping vocabulary notebooks is viewed as an effective strategy to take control of, organize and manage individual vocabulary learning. While this strategy is beneficial for learning vocabulary, most researchers and teachers have demonstrated that learners need to receive more guidance in the proper use of vocabulary notebooks. For example, students simply tend to write vocabulary word by word because they commonly view words as individual units. Moreover, learners have trouble choosing valuable words on their own. In order to resolve these issues, an association-based strategy was developed to assist learners in compiling vocabulary notebooks. This deep processing strategy was found to be more effective in regard to vocabulary retention than rote repetition strategies. A research framework was proposed for investigating the potential benefits and pitfalls of carrying out this strategy in the act of learning vocabulary. The framework divided the strategy instruction into two application situations: instructing the strategy either with or without the support of word expansion techniques. The framework first investigated the effect of the link-type note-taking method (the association-based strategy) by comparing it with the list-type one (the conventional strategy), where the association-based strategy was conducted without the support of word expansion techniques. Second, an English vocabulary learning system was designed to support students linking of the words under consideration. This support method used both semantic relationships and written forms of the old words to suggest related words. Third, an enhanced association-based vocabulary notebook system was developed. This system included a word expansion method to help students meaningfully associate words that share the same context. The experimental data collected in these three studies was aimed at suggesting practical implementations to teachers for the purpose of instructing this strategy and to provide researchers with a potential research blueprint for exploring this strategy.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 4
2.1 Vocabulary learning 4
2.2 The strategy of keeping vocabulary notebooks 5
2.3 Achieving meaningful learning with the association-based strategy 9
2.4 Organizational formats for keeping notebooks 10
2.5 Expressing a meaningful context with the semantic technology 11
2.6 WordNet and semantic relationships 14
2.7 Applying the linguistic method for building connections between words 17
2.8 Combining discovery learning theory with the vocabulary learning system 19
Chapter 3 Research Framework 21
Chapter 4 Instructing the association-based strategy for taking vocabulary notes 22
4.1 Methodology 22
4.2 Results and findings 27
4.3 Discussion 31
Chapter 5 Associating words by the similarity of the semantic and written forms 32
5.1 The definition of near-synonyms and similar-looking (NSSL) words 32
5.2 Finding near-synonyms and similar-looking words 34
5.3 Experimental evaluation 39
5.4 Results and findings 41
5.5 Discussion 44
Chapter 6 Associating words that sharing similar context 45
6.1 Connecting words to represent a meaningful context 45
6.2 System architecture 46
6.3 Chapelle's framework for evaluating computer-assisted language learning 56
6.4 The CALL evaluation 58
6.5 Results and findings 59
6.6 Discussion 64
Chapter 7 Conclusions 65
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