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系統識別號 U0026-2809201600342700
論文名稱(中文) CEBPD 在抗藥性膀胱癌中的調控與功能探討
論文名稱(英文) Investigation of CEBPD's regulation and roles in drug-resistant bladder cancers
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 基礎醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
學年度 105
學期 1
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 王韋然
研究生(英文) Wei-Jan Wang
學號 S58994152
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 74頁
口試委員 指導教授-王育民
共同指導教授-張文昌
口試委員-王憶卿
召集委員-陳玉玲
口試委員-侯自銓
口試委員-李健逢
中文關鍵字 膀胱尿路上皮癌  順鉑  交互抗藥性  CEBPD  ABCB1 
英文關鍵字 Urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder  cisplatin  cross-resistance  CEBPD  ABCB1 
學科別分類
中文摘要 順鉑經常與紫杉醇聯合進行合併性的化學療法,以治療膀胱尿路上皮癌。然而,如同其它類癌症治療方法所面臨的問題,交叉抗藥性使得順鉑的發展受到挑戰,阻礙其成功治療膀胱尿路上皮癌的經驗。因此,當務之急是了解順鉑所誘發的對癌症治療藥物抗藥性的根本機制,以便發展出新對策。本研究利用報導基因法和in vivo DNA 結合實驗,評估ABCB1 基因和ABCC2 基因的活化是否直接受到CEBPD 的調控。本研究
也利用抑制蛋白表現和抗癌藥物的效果實驗,以釐清存在於膀胱尿路上皮癌細胞內的上皮細胞生長因子接受體 (EGFR) 以及訊息傳遞及轉錄因子3 (STAT3) 此二者與通過順鉑誘導CEBPD 的表現是否有關聯。最後,本研究進行動物異種移植實驗,以測試Gefitinib 和S31-201(Stat3 抑制劑)兩者在逆轉順鉑敏感性,達到殺死膀胱尿路上皮癌細胞的效果。CEBPD 持續性地表現在已接受化學療法治療的病患身上;CEBPD也在具有順鉑抗藥性的膀胱尿路上皮癌細胞產生反應。當接受順鉑治療時,所誘導的CEBPD 表現活化了ABCB1 基因和ABCC2 基因。上皮細胞生長因子接受體/訊息傳遞及轉入因子3 的活化有助於順鉑於膀胱尿路上皮癌細胞內,誘導CEBPD 表現。艾瑞莎和S31-201 明顯減少了CEBPD 表現,但增強了順鉑的敏感性、促進具有順鉑抗藥性的NTUB1/P 細胞對紫杉醇敏感性和NTUB1/P 異種移植腫瘤的敏感性。本研究結果呈現在具有順鉑抗藥性的膀胱尿路上皮癌細胞內,活化CEBPD 所伴隨的風險;同時,也提出藉由合併順鉑和艾瑞莎或S31-201 的策略,治療膀胱尿路上皮癌或具有順鉑抗藥性的膀胱尿路上皮癌。
英文摘要 Urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder (UCUB) is the fourth most common malignancy in men, and the tenth most common in women. Anticancer drug cisplatin (CDDP) is highly used in the therapy of UCUB. In addition, CDDP is frequently combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel (PTX) used in UCUB therapies. However, as well as other types of cancers, the development of CDDP cross-resistance remains a challenge problem hindering the
successful treatment of UCUB. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms underlying CDDP-induced anticancer drug cross-resistance to develop novel strategies is urgent. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD) is expressed at a relatively low level under normal physiological conditions and can be up-regulated by a variety of extracellular
stimuli including IL-1β, PGE2, TNFα and stress like as starvation of serum and anticancer drugs. Actually, the function of CEBPD is more than serves as a tumor suppressor; several reports suggested that CEBPD also play an oncogenic role in certain conditions. For instance, recent study have demonstrated that CDDP could induce CEBPD-mediated
anti-apoptosis pathway in UCUB cells. However, how CDDP induces cross-resistance with PTX through transcription regulation of genes involved in anti-apoptosis remains largely unexplored. In this study, we found that the ABCB1 and ABCC2 genes were activated by CEBPD upon CDDP treatment. The EGFR/STAT3 pathway contributed to the CDDP-induced CEBPD expression in the UCUB cells. Both Gefitinib and S3I-201 significantly decreased CEBPD expression and enhanced the sensitivity of CDDP or PTX
of CDDP-resistant NTUB1/P cells or NTUB1/P xenograft tumors. Taken together, our results demonstrate the risk of CEBPD activation in CDDP-resistant UCUB cells and suggest a potentially therapeutic strategy for treating patients with UCUB or UCUB with CDDP-induced PTX resistance via a combination of CDDP and Gefitinib or S3I-201.
論文目次 Abstract............ I
中文摘要 ........... II
致謝 ............ III
Contents ............ IV
List of Figures .......... VI
List of Appendices .......... IX
Abbreviation List ........... X
Chapter 1 Introduction ......... 1
1-1 Drug resistance in urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder (UCUB) .. 1
1-1.1 Cisplatin (CDDP) treatment in UCUB ........ 1
1-1.2 CDDP and reactive oxygen species [6] in cancer ...... 1
1-1.3 CDDP and Paclitaxel (PTX) combination treatment in UCUB ... 2
1-1.4 CDDP and PTX cross resistance in cancer ...... 3
1-2 Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ...... 4
1-2.1 The role of EGFR in UCUB ........ 4
1-2.2 The mechanism of EGFR in drug resistance ....... 4
1-2.3 The function of EGFR inhibitor gefitinib in drug resistance ... 5
1-3 CCAAT/Enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD) ..... 6
1-3.1 CEBPD and cancer .......... 6
1-3.2 CEBPD and drug resistance ......... 6
1-4 Multidrug resistance transporter proteins (MDR) ...... 7
1-4.1 ABC transporter in cancer .......... 7
1-4.2 The Chemotherapy substrates of ABC transporter protein .... 7
1-5 Specific aims ............. 8

Chapter 2 Materials and Methods ........ 10
2-1 Materials ............. 10
2-2 Methods ............. 10
2-2.1 Cell lines and culture conditions ........ 10
2-2.2 Cell viability and cell death assays ........ 11
2-2.3 Western blot analysis.......... 11
2-2.4 Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) .. 12
2-2.5 Plasmid transfection and reporter gene assay ...... 12
2-2.6 Chromatin immunoprecipitation -PCR assay ...... 12
2-2.7 Lentiviral knockdown assay ........ 13
2-2.8 MDR pump activity assay .......... 14
2-2.9 Animal studies ............ 14
2-2.10 Statistical analysis .......... 15
Chapter 3. Results ........... 16
3-1 CEBPD is elevated in CDDP-resistant UCUB cell lines ...... 16
3-2 CDDP induces CEBPD expression in NTUB1/P cells ..... 16
3-3 CEBPD contributes to CDDP and CDDP-induced PTX cross-resistance .. 17
3-4 EGFR inhibitor Gefitinib significantly enhances CDDP sensitivity in
drug-resistant UCUB cells .......... 18
3-5 Abrogating STAT3 activation inhibits CEBPD expression and enhances CDDP
efficiency in CDDP-resistant UCUB .......... 19
3-6 ABCB1 and ABCC2 are the target genes of CEBPD ...... 20
3-7 ABCB1 is a target gene of CEBPD in the CDDP response ..... 20
3-8 Gefitinib and S3I-201 inhibit ABCB1 and ABCC2 transcripts and enhance CDDP
and PTX drug sensitivity in CDDP-resistant NTUB1/P cells and J82 UCUB cells . 21
3-9 Gefitinib and S3I-201 enhance CDDP and PTX drug sensitivity in
CDDP-resistant NTUB1/P cells and J82 UCUB cells ...... 22
3-10 Gefitinib and S3I-201 enhance CDDP sensitivity in CDDP-resistant
nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 cells .......... 23
3-11 Gefitinib and S3I-201 significantly enhance therapeutic efficacy of CDDP in
CDDP-resistant UCUB ........... 23

Chapter 4 Discussion .......... 25
References ............ 31
Figures ............ 40
Appendixes ........... 72
Curriculum Vitae .......... 73
List of Figures
Figure 1. The effects of cell viability and CEBPD abundance in various urothelial carcinoma
of urinary bladder (UCUB) cells responding to cisplatin (CDDP). .... 40
Figure 2. CEBPD expression is responsive to cisplatin (CDDP) treatment and sustained in
CDDP-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells. ........ 41
Figure 3. Cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells are insensitive to paclitaxel
(PTX) treatment. ........... 42
Figure 4. Attenuation of CEBPD in cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells
sensitize to CDDP and paclitaxel (PTX). ........ 43
Figure 5. The effects of CEBPD on ABC transporter-mediated pump activity in cisplatin
(CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells. ........ 44
Figure 6. Expression and activities of EGFR and STAT3 are increased in cisplatin
(CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells. ........ 45
Figure 7. Gefitinib attenuates survival of NTUB1 (NTU) and cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant
NTUB1/P (NTP) cells. ........... 46
Figure 8. Gefitinib enhances sensitization of NTUB1 (NTU) and cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant
NTUB1/P (NTP) cells to CDDP. ......... 47

Figure 9. CBEPD expression is associated with STAT3 activity following EGF treatment in
cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells. ..... 48
Figure 10. Levels of CEBPD associates with STAT3 activity in gefitinib-treated cisplatin
(CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells. ........ 49
Figure 11. STAT3 inhibitor (S3I-201) inhibits EGF or cisplatin (CDDP)-activated CEBPD
expression. ........... 50
Figure 12. Gefitinib and S3I-201 attenuate expression of phosphorylation of STAT3 (pY705)
and CEBPD in J82 cells. .......... 51
Figure 13. Cisplatin (CDDP) enhances STAT3 binding to promoter of CEBPD gene in
CDDP-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells. ........ 52
Figure 14. Overexpression of CEBPD upregulates ABCB1 and ABCC2 transcription in
cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells. ..... 53
Figure 15. ABCB1 transcripts are abundant in cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP)
cells. ............. 54
Figure 16. CEBPD induces ABCB1 transcription. ...... 55
Figure 17. Loss of CEBPD attenuates cisplatin (CDDP)-induced ABCB1 reporter activity.
.............. 56
Figure 18. Identification of CEBPD-responsive region in 5’-flanking region and intron 1 of
ABCB1 gene locus. ........... 57
Figure 19. Cisplatin (CDDP) enhances CEBPD binding to region containing putative
CEBPD binding motifs at ABCB1 gene locus in CDDP-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells.
.............. 58
Figure 20. Overexpression of CEBPD upregulates ABCB1 transcription containing known
exon 1 (NM_000927.4) in cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells. .. 59
Figure 21. Gefitinib and S3I-201 inhibits cisplatin (CDDP)-induced ABCC2 and ABCB1 transcription. ............ 60
Figure 22. Gefitinib and S3I-201 attenuate ABCB1 transcripts of J82 cells. .. 61
Figure 23. The effects of Gefitinib and S3I-201 on inhibition of ABCB1
transporter-mediated pump activity in cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells and
J82 cells. ............. 62
Figure 24. Gefitinib and S3I-201 enhance cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel (PTX) sensitivity
in CDDP-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells. ........ 63
Figure 25. Gefitinib and S3I-201 enhance cisplatin (CDDP) sensitivity in J82 cells. 64
Figure 26. Drug resistance of cisplatin (CDDP) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1/R
(CDDP-resistant HONE) cells. ........ 65
Figure 27. Cisplatin (CDDP) induces expression of CEBPD and ABCB1 in nasopharyngeal
carcinoma HONE1/R (CDDP-resistant HONE) cells. ..... 66
Figure 28. The effects of Gefitinib and S3I-201 on inhibition of ABCB1
transporter-mediated pump activity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1/R (cisplatin
(CDDP)-resistant HONE) cells. ........ 67
Figure 29. Gefitinib and S3I-201 enhance cisplatin (CDDP) sensitivity of nasopharyngeal
carcinoma HONE1/R (cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant HONE) cells. .... 68
Figure 30. In vivo anti-tumor effects of cisplatin (CDDP) treatments with or without
Gefitinib or S3I-201 in CDDP-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP)-xenografted NOD/SCID mice.
.............. 69
Figure 31. Decreased pSTAT3 and CEBPD and loss of ABCB1 and ABCC2 mRNA were
observed in cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant NTUB1/P (NTP) cells-bearing NOD/SCID mice.
.............. 70
Figure 32. Attenuated CEBPD and ABCB1 are observed in cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant
NTUB1/P (NTP) xenografted NOD/SCID mice. ...... 71

List of Appendices
Appendix 1. Working model for the molecular mechanism of cisplatin induced
drug resistance pathway in urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder cells.72
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