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系統識別號 U0026-2808202008340700
論文名稱(中文) 兒童閩南語母音聲學分析
論文名稱(英文) Acoustic Analysis of Vowels in Children Acquiring Taiwan Southern Min
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 外國語文學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Foreign Languages & Literature
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 高東榆
研究生(英文) Tung-Yu Kao
學號 K28001045
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 124頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳麗美
口試委員-陳世威
口試委員-羅勤正
口試委員-賴怡秀
口試委員-許長謨
中文關鍵字 聲學研究  閩南語  母音發展  母音空間  共振峰頻率 
英文關鍵字 acoustic research  Taiwan Southern Min  vowel development  vowel space area  formant frequencies 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究從聲學的角度,探索兒童閩南語的母音發展。研究語料是取自於一閩南語語料庫,語料發音人為三歲到六歲兒童,每個年齡層約男女各13人。研究結果顯示,未成熟肌肉控制與構音便利性為造成發音錯誤的兩大主因。相較於年齡對F1、F2、和VSA未有主效應,而性別的效應早在三歲階段即可有所觀察。考量整個母音系統,五到六歲是語音聲學數值發生變化的關鍵時期,這是因為聲道的構造重組於此階段完成。就口鼻母音而言,兩者的差異主要反應在F1的數值。由於兩者共振峰頻率的表現少有顯著差異,是以人們常會將兩者歸類成同一種聲音類別。
英文摘要 The study aims to investigate the vowel development of children learning Taiwan Southern Min (TSM, hereafter) from an acoustic perspective. To be specific, the research focus is to explore the age and sex effects on the first and second formant frequencies (F1 and F2) of vowel in TSM produced by children. The study attained its data from the Taiwanese corpus in the paidologos project. The speakers of attained data were children from age 3 to age 6, with each age group comprised of about 13 boys and 13 girls. The data were later analyzed based on F1, F2, and the vowel space area (VSA, hereafter). The results show that inadequate muscle control and convenience of articulation are two physiological constraints that underlie production mistakes. Age does not have a main effect on F1, F2, and VSA during the period of age. In contrast, the sex effect may emerge as early as at the age of 3. Considering the vowel system as a whole, it is suggested that the period from age 5 to age6 is a critical period when changes in acoustic measurement occur due to the complete reconfiguration of the vocal tract. In terms of vowels of oral/nasal pairs, it is found that the difference between oral and nasal vowels mainly manifests in Fl values. The lack of significant differences in F1 and F2 between oral and nasal vowels helps explain why people tend to regard oral/nasal pairs as the same sound.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT (Chinese)...................................i
ABSTRACT (English)...................................ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................iii
LIST OF TABLES.......................................v
LIST OF FIGURES......................................vi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION............................1
1.1 Background and Motivation........................1
1.2 Purposes and Research Questions..................3
1.3 Significance of the Study........................5
1.4 Structure of the Study...........................6

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW.......................7
2.1 Vocalic Acoustics................................7
2.1.1 Acoustic Properties of Vowels..................7
2.1.2 Anatomic-Acoustic Connections.................10
2.2 Normal Vowel Development........................13
2.2.1 Acquisition Patterns..........................13
2.2.2 Effects of Age and Sex on Vowel Development...15
2.3 Vowel Development in Taiwan Southern Min........20
2.3.1 TSM Sound System..............................20
2.3.2 Acoustic Studies on Oral Vowels in TSM........23
2.3.3 Acoustic Studies on Nasal Vowels in TSM.......32

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY..........................35
3.1 Data Source.....................................35
3.2 Data Selection..................................38
3.3 Data Processing.................................43
3.3.1 Sample Segmentation...........................43
3.3.2 Formant Value Analysis........................45
3.3.3 Interjudge Reliability........................47
3.4 VSA Analysis....................................47
3.5 Statistical Analysis............................47

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS...............................50
4.1 Patterns Underlying Production Mistakes.........50
4.1.1 Exclusion Types...............................51
4.1.2 Substitution Patterns.........................53
4.2 Development of F1, F2, and the Vowels...........55
4.2.1 Mean F1 and F2 Values Across Ages and Sexes...55
4.2.2 Vowel of /i/..................................57
4.2.3 Vowel of /e/..................................59
4.2.4 Vowel of /u/..................................60
4.2.5 Vowel of /ɔ/..................................62
4.2.6 Vowel of /a/..................................64
4.2.7 Vowel of /ə/..................................65
4.2.8 Vowel of /ĩ/..................................67
4.2.9 Vowel of /ẽ/..................................69
4.2.10 Vowel of /ã/.................................70
4.2.11 Vowel of /ɔ̃/.................................72
4.2.12 Summary......................................74
4.3 Development of VSA..............................77
4.4 Differences Between Oral and Nasal Vowels.......81

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION............................86
5.1 Discussion on Patterns Underlying Production Mistake...86
5.2 Discussion on Development of F1, F2, and the Vowels...91
5.3 Discussion on Development of VSA...............100
5.4 Discussion on Differences Between Oral and Nasal Vowels...103

CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION............................106
6.1 Major Findings of the Present Study............106
6.2 Discussion on Development of F1, F2, and the Vowels...108

REFERENCES.........................................110

APPENDICES.........................................119
Appendix A.........................................119
Appendix B.........................................120
Appendix C.........................................123
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