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系統識別號 U0026-2808201814213700
論文名稱(中文) 以社會生態模式探索與中高齡者身體活動量相關之個人、人際與環境因素
論文名稱(英文) Individual, social, and environmental factors correlated with physical activity among middle-aged and older adults using social ecological model
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 老年學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Gerontology
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 李逸軒
研究生(英文) Yi-Hsuan Lee
學號 TC6054042
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 62頁
口試委員 指導教授-范聖育
指導教授-張家銘
口試委員-邱靜如
口試委員-周學雯
中文關鍵字 鄰里環境  身體活動  中年人  高齡者  社會生態模式 
英文關鍵字 Neighborhood environment  Physical activity  Middle-aged  Older adults  Social ecological model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究顯示身體活動對健康有多種好處,但國內中高齡者規律運動的比例偏低。中高齡者從事身體活動受眾多因素影響,過去研究較著重個人因子與身體活動的關係,較少討論週遭環境的影響。社會生態模式以統合的視角,分析個人、人際與環境因子之互動關係對行為的影響。本研究應用此模式以探討:(1)與中高齡者身體活動量相關的個人、人際、環境因子;(2)在控制個人、人際因子後,環境因子與中高齡者身體活動的相關;以及(3)中高齡者對運動機構的環境需求,做為未來提升運動參與方案時的參考。
本研究使用橫斷式問卷調查研究設計。研究對象為一般社區之健康中高齡者,採方便取樣,於台南進行面訪與全台灣的網路調查,共完成有效問卷697份,面訪130份,網路567份。資料收集包含人口學資料、自我效能、社會支持、鄰里環境、機構環境需求;依變項為每日身體活動量。使用多元迴歸進行統計分析。
單變量分析顯示性別、年齡、自覺健康狀況、運動同伴、運動指導員、運動開銷、運動組織、自我效能、社會支持及鄰里環境與身體活動量顯著相關(p < 0.05)。多元迴歸顯示年齡(β = .11, p = .003)、自覺健康狀態(β = .17, p < .001)、自我效能(β = .28, p < .001)、與朋友一起運動(β = .11, p = .004)、鄰里環境(β = .08, p = .025)可以顯著預測身體活動量,其中以自我效能的影響力最強。整體迴歸模型可顯著解釋身體活動量17.38%的變異量。在控制個人、人際因子後,鄰里環境可以顯著增加模型解釋力(R2 change = .006, p = .025)。以年齡分層後,中年人組在控制相同變項時,鄰里環境可顯著預測身體活動量(β = .10, p = .012)。高齡者組之鄰里環境則無法顯著預測身體活動量。鄰里環境於自我效能和身體活動量的關係之間具有調節效果。運動機構調查顯示最重要之環境需求為「運動場地空氣流通,不會悶熱或潮濕」、「指導員有能力處理運動時發生的各種身體情況」、「設施與器材有提供清楚的圖示動作指引」、「備有緊急救護設施」、「指導員能夠考量每位中高齡者的個別性提供合適的課程」。
綜合考量社會生態模式不同層面因子與中高齡者身體活動的關係,顯示年齡、自覺健康狀態、自我效能、與朋友一起運動及鄰里環境皆為顯著的影響因子。未來在擬定政策、設計方案時需全面考量不同層面的促進方法,才有助於提升整體中高齡者的身體活動量。另外,在建置運動機構時,需強調環境的安全性和舒適性,專業的指導員則需考量中高齡者的個別性,提供合適的課程,才能滿足需求。
英文摘要 Social-ecological model (SEM) provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the multiple levels determinants of physical activity (PA). The purposes of this study were to explore: (1) the significant factors at different levels of SEM related to PA among Taiwanese middle-aged and older adults; (2) the correlation between environment factors and PA while adjusting intrapersonal and interpersonal factors; and (3) the environmental needs in physical activity facility.
A cross-sectional study design was conducted. Healthy middle-aged and older adults were recruited through convenient sampling from different communities in Tainan, as well as survey on-line around Taiwan.
The results showed that age, self-reported health, self-efficacy, exercise with friends and neighborhood environment were significantly related to PA. Full regression model could explain 17.38% variance in PA. While adjusting intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, adding neighborhood environment into the regression model could significantly increase the explanatory power. Self-efficacy had the strongest effect beyond other factors. Neighborhood environment was the moderator between self-efficacy and PA. Environmental needs survey showed safe, comfortable PA facility and tailored PA program were the priority needs.
In the future, policy making or project designing should consider multilevel factors in order to facilitate PA participation.
論文目次 中文摘要…….……………………………………………………………………………i
Abstract…….……………………………………………………………………………iii
誌謝…….…………………………………………………………………………………vi
第一章 前言………………………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景及動機……………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………………………………………2
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………………………3
第一節 中高齡者的身體活動………………………………………………………3
第二節 社會生態模式………………………………………………………………4
第三節 個人層面與身體活動之關係………………………………………………5
第四節 人際層面與身體活動之關係………………………………………………6
第五節 環境層面與身體活動之關係………………………………………………7
第六節 運動機構與身體活動之關係……………………………………………8
第七節 研究可能與潛在貢獻…………………………………………………10
第三章 研究方法………………………………………………………………………11
第一節 名詞解釋…………………………………………………………………11
第二節 研究對象…………………………………………………………………11
第三節 研究設計…………………………………………………………………12
第四節 測量工具…………………………………………………………………12
第五節 資料處理與統計分析…………………………………………………15
第六節 研究倫理…………………………………………………………………16
第四章 研究結果………………………………………………………………………17
第一節 收案過程…………………………………………………………………17
第二節 研究參與者基本資料……………………………………………………17
第三節 人口學類別變項與身體活動量之比較…………………………………22
第四節 連續變項與身體活動量之相關分析……………………………………23
第五節 各變項對身體活動量之預測情形………………………………………25
第六節 鄰里環境與自我效能的交互作用………………………………………29
第七節 運動機構環境需求……………………………………………………31
第五章 討論…………………………………………………………………………33
第一節 個人因子與身體活動……………………………………………………33
第二節 人際和環境因子與身體活動……………………………………………38
第三節 鄰里環境與自我效能的交互作用………………………………………40
第四節 機構環境需求……………………………………………………………41
第五節 臨床建議…………………………………………………………………42
第六節 研究限制…………………………………………………………………45
第七節 結論………………………………………………………………………47
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………48
附錄一、人體試驗委員會計畫審核通過證明書………………………………………57
附錄二、中高齡者身體活動與運動環境需求問………………………………58
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