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系統識別號 U0026-2808201217050500
論文名稱(中文) 台灣南部中央山脈之突發性孤立地震群特性探討
論文名稱(英文) Earthquake bursts in southern Central Range, Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 陳奕敦
研究生(英文) Yi-Dun Chen
學號 L46994069
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 151頁
口試委員 指導教授-饒瑞鈞
口試委員-景國恩
口試委員-樂鍇‧祿璞崚岸
口試委員-李元希
中文關鍵字 突發性孤立地震  南部中央山脈  群震 
英文關鍵字 burst  southern Central Range  swarm 
學科別分類
中文摘要 突發性孤立地震群(burst),不同於一般背景地震活動;為一種於有限的時空範圍內突然大量發震之地震型態總稱。它包含兩種截然不同的發震機制:斷層活動所造成的主餘震序列與地底熱液或岩漿活動所引發之群震(swarm)。對於辨明某一區域內的發震構造與機制,如何圈定與判斷突發性孤立地震群之分布與型態為一重要問題。前人對全台1991至2010年間之地震目錄進行突發性孤立地震群判識;結果顯示宜蘭、花蓮地區及中央山脈南段皆存在著相當數量的突發性孤立地震群。本研究選擇了南部中央山脈進行進一步分析,以瞭解南部中央山脈的突發性孤立地震群其時空與型態上的分佈特性,並探討其為主餘震序列或群震,以歸納出南部中央山脈的整體發震構造與機制。本研究挑選南部中央山脈地區地震規模大於1.8以上之地震共10124件進行雙差分重新定位,再以震群之時空分布之獨立性進行區分與觀察且配合機制解資料,同時分析其群內之地震事件規模與發生時間先後及空間上的排列,並依照震群內最大事件之發震時間判斷其震群為主餘震序列抑或是群震。最後,綜合上述所得震群時空分布與機制及震群型態,嘗試對南部中央山脈地區的發震構造與機制提出解釋。利用重新定位結果配合時空分布、機制解觀察與分析,可圈離出約14群較為明顯的突發性孤立地震群。於分析其分布及時間序列後,發現其中7群為群震,7群為主餘震序列,顯示此區域之發震機制並非為一般地震機制。而後分析本區域之機制解,其中以平行區域主應力軸之西北-東南走向之高角度正斷層,以及多種方向之走向滑移斷層居多。此區地震活動在1999年集集地震及2003年成功地震前後亦呈現遷移的形態。本研究對如此機制之解釋是由於地底熱液垂直通過因受區域主應力擠壓而張裂之裂隙,向地表湧升。而且於熱液通過處產生伸張環境,進而形成一由深至淺之高角度正斷層,且正斷層之走向平行應力方向。同時,因兩兩熱液通道間膨脹產生水平錯動,而於通道兩端產生左、右移兩方向之走向滑移斷層以消弭其因膨脹而產生的應變。我們最後利用庫倫應力轉移解釋大地震發生前後地震活動遷移的現象。
英文摘要 Unlike background seismicity, earthquake burst are earthquakes that strike suddenly in a limited time and space. It contains two different seismogenic processes, one is mainshock-aftershock series and the other is swarm. To understand the seismogenic structures that caused the seismic behavior, it is important to analyze their patterns. Previous study shows that there are many earthquake bursts in Ilan, Hualien and southern central range area from analyzing earthquake catalog between 1991 and 2010. We choose southern central range as our study area, hoping to summarize the whole area’s seismogenic structure and mechanism from the behavior of the bursts. We use double-difference relocation method to relocate 10124 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 1.8. Next, we separate them into specific parts based on the occurrence time. According to the largest event in every specific part, we could determine whether it is the main shock or the aftershock. Furthermore, we analyze them in the time domain with the addition of the focal mechanism solutions. Our research shows that there are 14 bursts in this area, including 7 mainshock-aftershock bursts and 7 swarms. It indicates that the seismogenic mechanisms in this area vary. After analyzing its focal mechanism solutions, there are normal faults striking NW-SE and some strike-slip fault in this area. The seismicity pattern also varies before and after the 1999 Chi-Chi and the 2003 Cheng-Kung earthquakes. The interpretation of burst mechanism is that underground hydrothermal cracks upwell vertically due to the regional compression. Under stretching environment caused by the upwelling of hydrothermal fluid, high-angle normal faults formed which striking parallel to the maximum principal stress direction. At the same time, the expansion between two hydrothermal channels produces strain. Two conjugate strike-slip faults produce dislocation eliminating the strain. We finally use Coulomb stress change to explain the phenomenon of seismicity migration before and after a large earthquake.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 IX
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第2章 前人研究 4
2.1 研究區域地質與地理概況 4
2.2 中央山脈地下之熱液來源相關研究 6
2.3 突發性孤立地震群及群震相關研究 9
第3章 研究方法 17
3.1 全台突發性孤立地震群系統化判識 17
3.1.1 地震資料之選取 18
3.1.2 系統化突發性孤立地震群判識之依據 18
3.1.3 系統化判識參數設定 19
3.1.4 全台突發性孤立地震群判識結果 19
3.2 研究區域地震資料之來源、選取與分析 23
3.2.1 地震目錄之完整規模計算 23
3.2.2 完整規模計算結果 24
3.2.3 區域地震資料選取與品質分析 24
3.2.4 建立一維速度構造之目的 28
3.2.5 選取一維速度構造之範圍與事件 28
3.2.6 建立一維速度構造之結果 29
3.3 震源重新定位-雙差分重新定位法 33
3.4 地震震源機制解 33
3.4.1 震源機制解測定方式與分類 33
3.5 突發性孤立地震群圈定與時間序列分析 34
3.6 庫倫應力轉移計算 35
第4章 研究結果 36
4.1 地震重新定位結果 36
4.1.1 雙差分重新定位與不同一維速度模型之測試 36
4.1.2 雙差分重新定位結果 43
4.2 震源機制解套疊結果 46
4.3 震群圈定及時間序列分析結果 50
4.3.1 投影至Google Earth 結果 50
4.3.2 全域地震之時間序列分析及震群圈定結果 53
4.4 各突發性孤立地震群獨立分析結果 57
4.4.1 集集地震前之突發性孤立地震群 57
4.4.2 集集地震後至成功地震前之突發性孤立地震群 60
4.4.3 成功地震之後之突發性孤立地震群 62
4.5 庫倫應力計算結果 132
4.5.1 集集地震對於本研究區域震群之影響 132
4.5.2 成功地震對於本研究區域震群之影響 134
4.5.3 震群間之交互影響 134
第5章 討論 137
5.1 研究區域突發性孤立地震群之發震構造特性 137
5.1.1 區域內走向滑移與正斷層機制之成因 137
5.2 研究區域內應力轉移之探討 144
第6章 結論 146
參考文獻 147
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