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系統識別號 U0026-2807202017021600
論文名稱(中文) 添加稻殼及稻殼炭產製功能性工程材料之探討
論文名稱(英文) Study on using rice husk and rice husk char to produce functional engineering materials
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Environmental Engineering
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 戴育陞
研究生(英文) Yu-Sheng Dai
學號 P56071159
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 163頁
口試委員 指導教授-張祖恩
口試委員-陳盈良
口試委員-林健榮
口試委員-柯明賢
中文關鍵字 稻殼  稻殼炭  輕質建材  鈣矽調質  隔熱調濕 
英文關鍵字 rice husk  rice husk char  calcium silicon conditioning  heat insulation  humidity control 
學科別分類
中文摘要 稻殼(rice husk,RH)富含矽元素,且為多孔結構,具備輕質特性,適合作為鈣矽水合漿體中輕質摻料。然而稻殼內含有大量有機物質,此類成分於高溫高鹼環境下會溶解至漿體中,使水泥顆粒表面被薄層覆蓋,導致系統中水泥水化作用受到干擾,進而影響製品強度。為克服上述問題,本研究將稻殼進行熱解處理生成稻殼炭(rice husk char,RHC)後再行添加,最後評估使用輕質摻料取代原製程中發泡鋁粉之可行性,以降低材料開發成本,並開發農業資材利用價值。

本研究以氫氧化鈣(Ca(OH)2)、二氧化矽(SiO2)、水泥(cement)等乾基材料進行鈣矽水合漿體產製,得知於12 atm、12 h條件進行養護時,製品擁有最佳抗壓強度,其Ca/Si為0.894,此為後續鈣矽調質之依據。將不同粒徑之稻殼RH1(>1.19 mm)、RH2(0.59~1.19 mm)、RH3(0.297~0.59 mm)及RH4(<0.297 mm)分別添加至鈣矽水合漿體中,並藉調升水固比(water to solids ratio,W/S)來探討稻殼粒徑與拌合水量對製品特性之影響。後續使用熱解條件為300~500℃之稻殼炭進行添加,探討其對製品抗壓強度之影響。最終綜合不同輕質摻料種類及蒸養條件所產製之製品結果,歸納最適蒸養條件,並測試輕質工程材料之隔熱、調濕等功能性。

研究結果顯示,在添加輕質摻料後,製品抗壓強度及密度均會有所下降。當W/S = 0.7 L/kg,稻殼及稻殼炭至少添加12 wt.%至鈣矽水合漿體時能符合AAC-6之規範,在調升W/S = 0.75 L/kg後,僅需添加4 wt.%稻殼即可符合AAC-6,其中RH1製品性能表現(performance factor,Pf)高出其他粒徑製品,粒徑越細對於製品強度發展越具不利影響;另以500℃熱解溫度產製之BC500,其製品性能表現則高於其他熱解溫度之稻殼炭製品。經鈣矽調質程序,將系統Ca/Si控制為0.894後,添加量為4~20 wt.% 之RH1及BC500製品分別可再提升8.22~26.71及9.12~31.84% 之抗壓強度。相較於鈣矽水合漿體,當添加12 wt.%稻殼時,於6 atm、20 h條件進行養護擁有最佳製品性能表現,顯示低溫下較有利稻殼製品強度發展,此時為13.33 MPa/g/cm3;添加12 wt.% 稻殼炭則可縮短水熱反應時間,於12 atm、8 h條件進行養護擁有最佳製品性能表現,此時為24.82 MPa/g/cm3。添加12 wt.%稻殼及稻殼炭之水合漿體製品導熱係數分別由0.88降至0.49及0.43 W/m‧K,而調濕特性則是在添加最少8 wt.% 稻殼炭時能夠符合JIS-A 1470-1調濕材料level 1之規範。綜合而言,稻殼及稻殼炭均能夠替代鋁粉發泡角色以提供製品輕質效果,藉此達到降低開發成本之目的,且摻料多孔、高比表面積之特性有助提升材料隔熱、調濕等功能,具有工程應用價值及環境友善性。
英文摘要 Rice husk (RH) is rich in silicon, and it has a porous structure with light-weight characteristics, suitable for using as light-weight admixtures. When using 12 atm and 12 h for curing, it has the highest performance factor (Pf) before adding the admixture. At this time, Ca/Si is 0.894. Because rice husk contains a large of organic matters that will cause a decrease of compressive strength, we pyrolyzed the rice husk into char and added. When W/S (water solid ratio) = 0.7 L/kg, rice husk and its char should be added at least 12 wt.% to meet the AAC-6 specification. The Pf of RH1 products is higher than that of other particle size products; the Pf of BC500 products is higher than other pyrolysis temperature rice husk char products. After the calcium and silicon conditioning process, the Ca/Si is controlled to 0.894, and the RH1 and BC500 products with an addition amount of 20 wt.% can increase the compressive strength of 26.71 and 31.84%, respectively. When adding 12 wt.% rice husk and curing at 6 atm for 20 h, the specimens has the highest Pf which is 13.33 MPa/g/cm3; adding 12 wt.% rice husk char can shorten the reaction time, when curing at 12 atm for 8 h has the highest Pf which is 24.82 MPa/g/cm3. The thermal conductivity of 12 wt.% rice husk and rice husk char products was reduced from 0.88 to 0.49 and 0.43 W/m‧K, respectively. It can comply with JIS-A 1470-1 specification when adding at least 8 wt.% rice husk char.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
誌謝 XI
圖目錄 XVI
表目錄 XX
第一章 前言 1
1-1研究動機與目的 1
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2-1稻殼之特性與資源化現況 5
2-1-1稻殼之產出與特性 5
2-1-2稻殼處置現況 11
2-1-3稻殼再利用途徑 13
2-2水泥反應機制及輕質混凝土種類 16
2-2-1水泥水化作用及卜作嵐反應 16
2-2-2輕質混凝土之種類與發展 20
2-2-3氣泡輕質混凝土之養護類型 24
2-3功能性建材之發展與技術 25
2-3-1功能性建材之種類 25
2-3-2功能性建材之特性 28
2-3-3蒸氣養護對功能性建材之影響 31
2-4托伯莫萊土之生成與應用 32
2-4-1蒸氣養護機制介紹 32
2-4-2托伯莫萊土之生成 36
2-4-3托伯莫萊土之特性及應用 39
2-5小結 41
第三章 研究材料、設備及方法 42
3-1研究架構與實驗流程 42
3-2研究材料與設備 45
3-2-1原料前處理及製備 45
3-2-2實驗試藥及儀器設備 46
3-3研究分析與方法 47
3-3-1原料配比及調質設計 47
3-3-2漿體製備及蒸氣養護程序 49
3-3-3實驗試藥及儀器設備 49
第四章 結果與討論 55
4-1 材料基本特性 55
4-1-1稻殼之物化特性 55
4-1-2稻殼炭之物化特性 68
4-1-3小結 78
4-2 以稻殼產製輕質工程材料 79
4-2-1鈣矽反應條件探討 79
4-2-2添加稻殼產製輕質工程材料 89
4-2-3稻殼製品鈣矽成分調質 104
4-2-4養護條件對稻殼製品之影響 108
4-2-5小結 118
4-3以稻殼炭產製輕質工程材料 119
4-3-1添加稻殼炭產製輕質工程材料 119
4-3-2稻殼炭製品鈣矽成分調質 126
4-3-3養護條件對稻殼炭製品之影響 130
4-3-4小結 140
4-4輕質工程材料之功能性探討 141
4-4-1輕質工程材料吸水率與導熱性 141
4-4-2輕質工程材料濕度調控特性 148
4-4-3小結 153
第五章 結論與建議 154
5-1結論 154
5-2建議 156
參考文獻 157

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