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系統識別號 U0026-2807202013385500
論文名稱(中文) 回歸伊斯蘭正統:二十世紀美國黑人穆斯林運動(1930-1988)
論文名稱(英文) Returning to Orthodoxy Islam: The American Black Muslim Movement in the Twentieth Century(1930-1988)
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 歷史學系
系所名稱(英) Department of History
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 張偉恩
研究生(英文) Wei-En Chang
電子信箱 o184612@gmail.com
學號 K36061017
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-林長寬
口試委員-姚玉霜
口試委員-李鑑慧
中文關鍵字 黑人穆斯林運動  Nation of Islam  Warith Deen Muhammad  美國穆斯林社群 
英文關鍵字 Black Muslim Movements  Nation of Islam  Warith Deen Muhammad  American Muslim community 
學科別分類
中文摘要 美國黑人穆斯林運動以1930年代由Wallace Fard Muhammad所建立的Nation of Islam為最具代表性的團體,一般學界認為該團體受到Noble Timothy Drew Ali領導的Moorish Science Temple以及Marcus Garvey提倡的黑人民族主義(Black Nationalism)所影響。為了凝聚黑人社群以及提升黑人自我認同,將伊斯蘭與黑人民族主義結合形成一個以伊斯蘭信仰為號召的社會運動團體。也因此發展出一些像是「Wallace Fard Muhammad是神的化身」(Wallace Fard Muhammad is God in person) 以及「白人即邪惡」(The White is Devil) 等獨創教義,這些教義雖有助於吸引下階層黑人加入與凝聚向心力,但也導致其他穆斯林團體視Nation of Islam為異端。1975年,領導Nation of Islam 四十一年的Elijah Muhammad離世,由他的兒子Warith Deen Muhammad繼任。Warith Deen Muhammad在繼任之後開始改革,放棄Nation of Islam早期的獨創教義,與其他穆斯林團體合作,並在1982年加入北美伊斯蘭協會 (Islamic Society of North America),從此被視為順尼穆斯林社群的一員。過去研究多認為Warith Deen Muhammad的改革是受到前發言人Malcolm X的影響並繼承其理念,同時也是為了因應社會型態轉變。然而上述研究多以社會學研究角度切入,將此一轉變歸因於社會環境與社群之互動關係。本論文旨在盡可能呈現黑人穆斯林運動轉型時之歷史背景,以此重新探討黑人穆斯林運動轉型的原因。
英文摘要 The Nation of Islam (NOI) was the most distinguished group based in the United States among the Black Muslim Movement in the 1930s. The ideology of NOI combined the Islamic doctrine and Black Nationalism to strengthen the black unity and self-identification, called by Islamic faith. Studies have explored the transformation of the NOI from its original ideology to the cooperation with other Muslim groups between the 1970s and 80s in response to changes in social patterns. Many believe that the chief reformer Warith Deen Muhammad, inherited the ideas of Malcolm X and led the NOI to join the Islamic Society of North America in 1982. However, such the sociological approach generally attributes this change solely to the interaction between the community and social environment. This thesis aims to re-examine the role played by Warith Deen Muhammad and other factors in the transition of the Black Muslim Movement in the mid-twentiteh century from the perspective of its historical development.

Key words: Black Muslim Movements, Nation of Islam, Warith Deen Muhammad, American Muslim community

論文目次 目次
摘要 i
致謝 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 前言 1
第二節 研究回顧 2
第三節 研究材料的運用與挑戰 11
第四節 論文架構 12
第二章 美國穆斯林社群之歷史背景 14
第一節 非裔穆斯林社群 14
第二節 移民穆斯林社群 24
第三節 結語 29
第三章 黑人穆斯林自我認同之形塑 30
第一節 思想與教義 31
第二節 政治思想與宣傳活動 43
第三節 結語 58
第四章 回歸伊斯蘭正統 60
第一節 來自內部的轉型跡象 61
第二節 外部團體的影響 72
第三節 結語 84
第五章 結論 85
徵引書目 89

參考文獻 徵引書目
一、 檔案
FBI File: Elijah Muhammad, Part 1. File Number: 105-24822.
FBI File: Wallace Fard Muhammad, Part 1. File Number: 100-43165.
FBI File: Wallace Fard Muhammad, Part 1. File Number: 105-63642.
二、 報紙
Arizona Tribune, 1961.
Los Angeles Herald Examiner, 1963
Muhammad Speaks, 1960-1975.
Muslim Journal, 1992.
New York Times, 1963-1965.
Pittsburgh Courier, January 24, 1959.
Review of Religions, 1920-1966.
The Final Call to Islam, 1934
The Moslem Sunrise, 1921.
三、 專書
Ahmad, Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood. Invitation to Ahmadiyyat. Abingdon: Routledge & Kegan Ltd, 1980.
Ahmad, Mirza Tahir. With Love to the Muslims of the World: The Ahmadiyya Perspective. Surrey: Islam International Publications, 2004.
Ali, Drew. The Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple of America. Hunlock Creek: EWorld Inc, 2014.
Bowen, Patrick D. A History of Conversion to Islam in the United States, Volume 2, The African American Islamic Renaissance, 1920-1975. Leiden: Brill, 2017.
Curtis, Edward E. IV. Black Muslim Religion in the Nation of Islam, 1960-1975. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
Curtis, Edward E. IV. Islam in Black America: Identity, Liberation and Difference in African-American Islamic Thought. New York: State University of New York Press, 2002.
Diouf, Sylviane A. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas. New York: New York University Press, 1998.
Elkholy, Abdo A. The Arab Moslems in the United States: Religion and Assimilation. New Haven: College & University Press, 1966.
Essien-Udom, E. U. Black Nationalism: A Search for an Identity in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.
Ghaneabassiri, Kambiz. A History of Islam in America: From the New World to the New World Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Gibson, Dawn-Marie. A History of the Nation of Islam: Race, Islam, and the Quest for Freedom. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2012.
Gibson, Dawn-Marie. The Nation of Islam, Louis Farrakhan, and the Men Who Follow Him. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.
Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck ed., The Muslims of America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Hakim, Nasir Makr. The True History of Elijah Muhammad: Messenger of Allah. Atlanta: Secretarius Memps, 1997.
Lee, Martha F. The Nation of Islam: An American Millenarian Movement. New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988.
Leonard, Karen Isaksen. Muslims in the United States: the State of Research. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2003.
Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Muslims in America. Boston: Beacon Press, 1961.
Lomax, Louis E. When the Word Is Given: A Report on Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, and the Black Muslim World. Cleveland: World Publishing, 1963.
Malcolm X and Alex Haley. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. London: Penguins Books, 1968.
Malcolm X, The Diary of Malcolm X: El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, 1964. Chicago: Third World Press, 2013.
Marable, Manning. Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention. New York: Viking, 2011.
Marsh, Clifton. From Black Muslims to Muslims: The Transition from Separatism to Islam, 1930-1980. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1984.
Marsh, Clifton. The Lost-found Nation of Islam in America. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2000.
Muhammad, Elijah. Messages to the Blackman in America. Chicago: Muhammad’s Temple No. 2, 1965.
Muhammad, Elijah. The Supreme Wisdom. Chicago: University of Islam, 1957.
Rashid, Samory. Black Muslims in the US: History, Politics, and the Struggle of a Community. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Smith, Jane I. and Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad. The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Turner, Richard Brent. Islam in the African-American Experience. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.
Wolseley, Roland Edgar. The Black Press, U. S. A. Ames : Iowa State University Press, 1990.
Works Progress Administration. Drums and Shadows: Survival Studies among the Georgia Coastal Negroes. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1973.

四、 專書論文
Ahmed, Gutbi Mahdi. “Muslim Organizations in the United States,” in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad ed. The Muslims of America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), pp. 11-24.
Diouf, Sylviane A. “The First Stirrings of Islam in America,” in Jane I. Smith, and Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad eds. The Oxford Handbook of American Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 15-28.
Rouse, Caroline Moxley. “African American Muslims,” in Jane I. Smith, and Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad eds., The Oxford Handbook of American Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 87-99.

五、 期刊論文
中文
林長寬,〈論伊斯蘭Tasawwuf之「近神觀」(Qurbah)〉,《新世紀宗教研究》,第13卷第2期(2014),頁1-59。
外文
Ayesha K. Mustafaa, “Professor Muhammad Abdullah: A Legend Returns to Allah,” Muslim Journal, July 17, 1992. pp. 1-21.
Beynon, Erdmann Doane. “The Voodoo Cult Among Negro Migrants in Detroit,” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 43, No. 6, 1938. pp. 894-907.
Curtis, Edward E. IV. “African-American Islamization Reconsidered: Black History Narratives and Muslim Identity,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 73, No. 3, 2005. pp. 659-684.
Fathie Ali Abdat, “Before the Fez: The Life and Times of Drew Ali, 1886-1924,” Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion, Vol. 5, Iss. 8, 2014. 1-39.
Felber, Garrett. “Shades of Mississippi: The Nation of Islam’s Prison Organizing, the Carceral State, and the Black Freedom Struggle,” Vol. 105, Iss. 1, 2018. pp. 71-95.
Jones, Oliver Jr. “The Black Muslim Movement and the American Constitutional System,” Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1983. pp. 417-437.
Mamiya, Lawrence H. “From Black Muslim to Bilalian: The Evolution of a Movement,” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1982. pp. 138-152.
Monstra, Yahya. “The Name Shabazz: Where Did It Come from?” Islamic Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1993. pp. 73-76.
Tinaz, Nuri. “The Nation of Islam: historical evolution and transformation of the movement,” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1996. pp. 193-209.
Wilson, Jamie J. “‘Come Down off the Cross and Get Under the Crescent’: The Newspaper Columns of Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X,” Biography, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2013. pp. 494-506.

六、 學位論文
Muhammad, Akbar Dyula Intellectualism in the Ivory Coast and Ghana: a Study of the Life and Career of al-Ḥājj Ṣāliḥ b. Muḥammad b. Uthmān. Ph. D thesis, University of Edinburgh,1974.
Oschinsky, Lawrence. Islam in Chicago: Being a Study of the Acculturation of a Muslim Palestinian Community in that City. M.A. thesis, University of Chicago, 1947.
七、 網路資料
1975 Saviours Day - Imam W. Deen Mohammed 1, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DULjrgT8wLA 2020.05.15 accessed.
Abdullah Igram墓誌銘,參見美國墓誌銘檔案網:https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/98773438/abdallah-h_-igram 2020.05.13 accessed.
Akbar Muhammad接受美國公共電視網採訪https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/interviews/akbar.html2020.05.20 accessed.
CIA, The World Factbook:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html2019.08.05 accessed.
Lahore Ahmadiyya官方網誌http://ahmadiyya.org/WordPress/2017/04/03/usa-a-land-granted-to-the-saint-of-allah-i-e-hazrat-mirza-ghulam-ahmad/2020.05.20 accessed.
The New York Public Library Archives & Manuscripts, “Moorish Science Temple of America” http://archives.nypl.org/scm/20888, 2020.03.11 accessed.
北美伊斯蘭議會之官方網站http://fiqhcouncil.org/ 2020.02.20 accessed.
美國普查局(United States Census Bureau)2018年人口普查報告:https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=PEP_2018_PEPSR6H&prodType=table2019.08.05 accessed.
范德比大學美國黑人歷史與離散研究中心年表https://as.vanderbilt.edu/aads/about/ 2020.05.13 accessed.


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