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系統識別號 U0026-2807201520534400
論文名稱(中文) 航空公司維修委外作業探討
論文名稱(英文) Influence Factors Analysis on Airlines Maintenance Outsourcing
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics (on the job class)
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 洪仕安
研究生(英文) Shih-An HUNG
學號 P47021074
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 45頁
口試委員 口試委員-蕭樂群
指導教授-林清一
口試委員-郭仕堯
中文關鍵字 委外  德菲法  航空業  共識指標 
英文關鍵字 outsoucing  Delphi  Airline Industry  Consensus deviation index 
學科別分類
中文摘要 營運成本是航空公司最大的敵人之ㄧ,由於成本的增加將導致營運獲利的減少,更嚴重者航空公司將會倒閉。目前燃料費用約佔航空公司成本的最大支出。根據國際航空運輸協會(IATA)發布的全球航空業績效評估中預測,2015年航空業在燃油支出約為191億美元,約佔營運成本的28%,近年來油價的下跌自2013年的124.4美元/每桶至2015年的78美元/每桶,使得航空業在2015年的油價效益約為16億美元。
航空公司為了降低營運成本將會考慮將飛機維修業務委外,以降低維修成本的支出,並提升公司的競爭力。因此,本研究將針對航空公司維修業務委外時所須探討的因素,分為(1)公司內部成本方面 (2)公司內部技術方面 (3)公司委外維修廠的遴選,三個層面進行研究分析。
本研究於問卷進行前,先收集相關文獻,並與國籍航空公司高階主管及相關專業人士討論現行飛機維修委外的情況及未來可改善的方向。將其資訊收集彙整後製作成問卷,並開始進行問卷調查。透過德菲法進行問卷調查後,再利用共識指標及變異數的方式檢視專家群體們的意見是否達成一致,進而找出航空公司維修業務委外時的重要因素,希望此研究可以提供未來航空公司在維修業務委外評估時的參考依據。
英文摘要 Operation costs take the largest part of business expenditures in airlines. Increasing operation costs may sacrifice profits and even lead to a risk of bankruptcy. Recently, fuel cost has become the largest of management expenditure on operation. IATA’s semi-annual report made predictions on the economic performance of global aviation industry that the airlines fuel bill will fall to $191 billion in 2015, which will represent 28% of their total operating costs. During the past few years, the fuel price drops from $124.5/b in 2013 to $78/b in 2015 has generated $16 billion of profit for the airlines industry.
Airlines would consider outsourcing the jobs of aircraft maintenance to save costs and promote their competitiveness. Thus, this study aims to investigate the factors that impact how airlines outsource the jobs of aircraft maintenance within three domains: (1) inside cost, (2) inside technology, (3) MRO selection.

In the research design, Delphi method is employed in this thesis. This study has conducted a comprehensive literature review as well as discussions about current situations of outsourcing aircraft maintenance and its future improvements with management staffs in Taiwanese airlines. A questionnaire then has been developed based on the information collected and will be delivered to the respondents. The present study will evaluate agreements among the expert group opinions by Consensus Deviation Index and variance.

The aviation industry faced its biggest depression in 2001 when many airline companies, such as Swissair and Sabena ….etc, went into bankruptcy. The costs for repair and maintenance of aircraft accounted for 35% of the revenue in an airline company. If these costs could be lowered, the profits can be increased as a result. Moreover, the key business of an airline company is operation of aircrafts and expansion of air routes, not the aircraft maintenance. The business model of outsourcing could transfer the duties and responsibilities, which are supposed to be taken by airline companies, to outsourcing companies or contractors. It creates a win-win situation and helps the outsourced lower costs to increase their competitiveness and profit. As the aviation industry could be said as the business that needs most capitals to invest, the threshold of opening a new airline company is very high. To lower operation costs, aircraft maintenance outsourcing may become wide-adopted to airline management.

Delphi Method was developed by RAND Corporation in the 1950’s from the Delphi Project in which researchers studied how many atom bombs it takes to strike the troops of United States. The method, also called expert panel, is an integrative approach that combines qualitative and quantitative analysis. A group of decision makers comment on the items by responding to the questionnaires prepared by the researchers. All decision makers do not know each other and are not allowed to exchange their views and comments. A group facilitator is responsible for summarizing all the replies from the decision makers and analyzing the data with the medians of those responses. The decision makers are requested to respond to the second and following questionnaire based on the summary of the responses to the first or last questionnaire. The process of soliciting responses from the decision makers usually takes two or more rounds of questionnaires until the consensus has been reached.

This study examined the factors of a successful outsourcing for airline companies described as follows.
1.The costs for engine checks、repairs and overhaul is one of the factors to consider outsourcing;
2.The expenditure and organization of staffing affects the decision of outsourcing;
3.Not to lose the core values of the outsourced airline company could lead to the best effectiveness of outsourcing;
4.The developing a mechanism to monitor the quality of aircraft’s repair and maintenance from the two ends may promote the success of outsourcing;
5.Assuring the stability in the repair and maintenance check of aircrafts is an important issue;
6.The outsourced must hire technicians who have the background of aircraft’s repairs and maintenance check experience to facilitate mutual communications with the contractors when sourcing out;
7.The contractors have to be accredited by civil aviation organizations. For example: FAA、EASA certificate;
8.The contractors needs to have the license of repairing one specific type of aircrafts;
9.The contractors should provide the warranty for their repairs and maintenance check items;
10.The reputation, capacity, and technicians’ skills of the contractors are needed to take into consideration;
11.The quality of technicians hired by the contractors determines the quality of repairs and maintenance check;

In conclusion, this research result can keep the core values and create the competitive advantages. Most of all, the airline company should understand all the factors of a successful aircraft maintenance outsourcing to contractors and analyze what factors are most important for management and operation.
論文目次 誌 謝 III
目 錄 VIII
表 目 錄 IX
圖 目 錄 X
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究目的與範圍 2
1.3研究範圍與限制 3
1.4研究架構 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1委外市場簡介 6
2.2德菲法(Delphi method)介紹與運用 8
2.3航空業概況 11
第三章 研究方法 14
3.1德菲法理論基礎與應用 14
3.2德菲法問卷設計與統計分析 15
3.3德菲法的優缺點 17
3.4專家遴選 19
第四章 資料結果分析與討論 22
4.1 第一回合問卷回收資料分析 22
4.1.1 內部成本方面 22
4.1.2 內部技術方面 23
4.1.3 外部維修廠之遴選 24
4.2 第二回合問卷回收資料分析 26
4.2.1 內部成本方面 27
4.2.2 內部技術方面 28
4.2.3 外部維修廠之遴選 29
4.3 小節 34
第五章 結論與建議 35
5.1研究結論 35
5.2未來研究方向建議 39
參 考 文 獻 41
參考文獻 一、中文部份
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4.彼得‧克拉克,巨變時代的管理,中天出版社,1998年。
5.麥可‧考貝特,「委外革命:全世界都是你的生產力」,經濟新潮社,2006年 。
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8.孫華興,「商用航空維修(MRO)市場發展趨勢」,航太產業報,1999年7月,第1 - 5頁。
9.范沛琦,「如何減少飛機維修的時間和成本」,航太產業報,1998年10月,第19 - 24頁。
10.范沛琦,「引擎改裝市場」,航太產業報,1998年10月,第14 - 19頁。
11.范沛琦,「大型商用客機引擎市場展望」,航太產業報,1998年7月,第9 - 12頁。
12.周樹林,「資訊委外服務市場發展現況與趨勢」,經濟情勢暨評論,2004年3月,第1 - 29頁。
13.王彥文,「日本藥妝界之外包企業現況」,藥業市場雜誌,2006年8月,第41 - 47頁。
14.陳郁雯,「『外包』,再造競爭優勢」,人力發展,2000年4月,第39 - 42頁。
15.陳琮淵、王振寰,「台灣的生技製藥產業:發展、創新與限制」,台灣社會學刊,2009年12月,第159 - 208頁。
16.陳照森、陳一飛、黃偉倫,「企業對於網路委外服務之研究」,中華科技大學學報,2009年11月,第187 - 210頁。
17.張維容、鍾信成,「以德菲法建立醫院內部評估社區健康服務成效之指標」,澄清醫護管理雜誌,2009年1月,第45 - 54頁。
18.陳恒鈞、黃渾峰,「循證政策制定之運用:以南勢溪流域管理策略為例」,政大公共行政學報,2009年6月,第101 - 148頁。
19.袁建中、曾國雄、康才華、鄭建銓,「委外績效評選之多屬性決策:以德霖技術學院電腦教室為例」,資訊管理學報,2005年1月,第131 - 148頁。
20.李文魁、張有恆,「飛航安全風險評估模式之構建」,運輸計畫,2005年3月,第145 - 175頁。
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二、英文部份
1.Calvin, S., (2007), “Aviation Safety: The FAA’s Oversight of Outsourced Maintenance Facilities”, Statement of the Inspector General, US Department of Transportation, before the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, Subcommittee on Aviation.
2.Cristiano, J. J., Liker, J. K.& White, C. C., (2001) “Key Factors in the Successful Application of Quality Function Deployment (QFD)”, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 48(1), pp. 81-95.
3.Dalkey, N. C., (1967), “Delphi report”, Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
4.David, A. D., (2008), “Air Carriers’ Outsourcing of Aircraft Maintenance”, US Department of Transportation, Office of the Inspector General, Memorandum to the Acting FAA Administrator.
5.Dawson, M. D., Brucker, P. S., (2001), “The utility of the Delphi method in MFT”.
6.Ebbs, G. H., (1997), “Supporting Roles,” Airline Business, pp. 58-60.
7.Phillips, Edward H., “MRO Industry Grappling With Critical Issues,” Aviation Week & Space Technology, Vol. 150, No. 17, 26 April 1999, p.45.
8.Edward, C., (2008), "Boeing: New Jet, New Way of Doing Business", CIO Insight. Ziff Davis Enterprise Holdings Inc.
9.Green, B., et al., (1999), “Applying the Delphi technique in a study of GPs’ information requirements”, Health and Social Care in the Community, 7(3), pp. 198-205.
10.Gupta, U.G., Clarke, R.E., (1996) “Theory and applications of the delphi technique: A bibliography. (1975-1994)”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 53, (2), pp185-211.
11.Carey, S., Trottman, M., (2007), “Airlines Explore New Routes”, The Wall Street Journal Online.
12.Hill, C. W. L., Jones, G. R., Galvin, P., (2004), “An Integrated Approach”, Strategic Management, John Wiley, Sydney.
13.Hitt, M. A., Ireland,R. D., Hoskission, R. E., (1997), “Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization”, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
14.Jenkins, D. A., Smith, T. E., (1994), “Applying Delphi methodology in family therapy research”, Contemporary Family Therapy, 16, pp. 411-430.
15.Kevin, M., (2007), “Outsourcing Airline Maintenance to Foreign Repair Stations Problematic”, Business Travel Executive, November 2007.
16.Mitchell, V. W., (1991), “The Delphi technique: An exposition and application”, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 3(4), pp. 333-358.
17.Murry, J. W., Hammons, J. O., (1995), “Delphi: A versatile methodology for conducting qualitative research”, Review of Higher Education, 18(4), pp. 423-436.
18.Milligan, M., (2007), “TIA Predicts Moderate Growth for the Travel Industry”, Travel Weekly.
19.Phillips, E. H., (1999), “MRO Industry Grappling with Critical Issues”, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 150(17), pp. 45-52.
20.Porter, M., (1980), “Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitor”, The Free Press, New York research. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 29(2), pp. 125-140.
21.US Department of Homeland Security, Transportation Security Administration, (2004), “Repair Station Rule Delayed”, Aviation Week, Public Listening Session on aircraft repair station security, pp. 7-12.
22.Birch, Doug, “Wanted: Qualified People,” Interavia, November 1998 (B), p. 47.
23.Thomas, F. S., Adam, S. R., (2003), “Do what you do best, outsource the rest? ” , Southwest Economy, 6, pp. 13-14.
24.Thomas, F., (2008), “Risk Posed by Overseas Aircraft Repairs Debated”, USA Today ; FAA Repair Station Database, April 2008.
25.Michaels, K., (2007), “Aero Strategy”, Global MRO Outsourcing Trends Presentation given at the 7thAnnual Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing Conference, October, San Diego, CA.

三、網站部份
1. 交通部網站 (http://www.motc.gov.tw/)
2. 民航局網站 (http://www.caa.gov.tw/)
3. 中華航空網站 (http://www.china-airlines.com/ch/index.htm)
4. 長榮航空網站 (http://www.evaair.com/html/b2c/chinese/)
5. 行政院衛生署中央健康保健局 (http://www.nhi.gov.tw/)
6. 美國FAA網站 (http://www.faa.gov/)
7. IATA網站 (http://www.iata.org/Pages/default.aspx)
8. ICAO網站 (http://www2.icao.int/en/home/default.aspx)
9. Boeing 網站 (http://www.boeing.com/)
10. AirBus 網站 (http://www.airbus.com/)
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