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系統識別號 U0026-2807201316504300
論文名稱(中文) 台灣西部海域優養狀態之評估研究
論文名稱(英文) Evaluation of the eutrophication status in Taiwan's west coast
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 海洋科技與事務研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 陳厚宇
研究生(英文) Hou-Yu Chen
學號 NA6004014
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 123頁
口試委員 口試委員-楊磊
口試委員-黃良銘
口試委員-張懿
指導教授-劉大綱
中文關鍵字 海域優養  營養鹽  優養潛勢  優養評估  優養管理 
英文關鍵字 Coastal eutrophication  Nutrients  Susceptibility of eutrophication  Eutrophication assessment  Eutrophication management 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近岸海域優養化已成為威脅海洋之主要因素之一,使得海洋所提供之生態服務功能降低,而生物資源之改變則造成經濟之損失。歐美等國已發展出許多量化分析海域優養之評估方法,然而台灣目前近岸海域並未有優養情勢之整合分析調查研究,本研究除了參考國外海域優養化評估方法,分析比較美國及歐洲之優養評估模式的優缺點;在水質評估中,已完成台灣西部河口及沿近海域優養潛勢及營養鹽指標綜合評估,並且搭配MODIS 月別水色衛星影像探討葉綠素a 濃度,探討台灣目前整體優養潛勢之現況。
評估顯示在河口部分,高優養潛勢多集中在西南部,如北港溪、朴子溪、八掌溪、急水溪、曾文溪、二仁溪、阿公店溪、高屏溪及東港溪等,陸源性污染物較容易於高優養潛勢河口累積;而營養鹽指數相對較高者(Ni>40)出現於南部之阿公店溪,其次依序為南部之鹽水溪、北部之鳳山溪與中港溪、後龍溪,代表前述河口有相對較高之營養鹽輸入。在河口外測海域水體部分,台灣西部海域之營養鹽指數計算顯示,南部之大鵬灣沿海(Ni=14.37)與高屏溪沿海(Ni=9.69),乃指數最高之海域;海域優養指標整體評估中,高屏溪口沿海的正磷酸鹽(DIP>0.05 mg/L)和溶解態無機氮(DIN>0.5 mg/L)皆呈現較高的指數,大鵬灣沿海之葉綠素a(Chl-a=15.6 μg/L)在水質指數中也有偏高的趨勢,代表目前已呈現優養化。綜合評價法整體評估中,二仁溪口沿海、高屏溪口沿海及大鵬灣沿海,以上三個區域評估值皆偏低(EQRs <0.21)此與海域優養評估潛勢及國家海岸評估水質指數結果相近,研判這三個沿近海地區已經呈現優養化的趨勢相當高;利用MODIS 衛星月別水色影像評估河川葉綠素a 濃度,結果顯示濁水溪、朴子溪、及曾文溪在河川及離岸3海里處葉綠素濃度都有偏高之現象(Chl-a >5 μg/L),代表營養鹽容易累積與此。
優養化等環境議題越來越受到世界各國普遍的關注與高度重視,我國應當結合自然條件與具體的優養潛勢現況,制定綜合的管理方案,分階段性的加以落實。本研究之成果,將可提供主管機關未來進行水污染防治管理與削減營養鹽之重要依據,優先治理優養趨勢高之河口近岸海域,方能將有限之資源作最有效之運用。
英文摘要 Coastal eutrophication has become one of the main threats to the ocean environment, reducing the ecosystem services and causing changes in biological resources that lead to economy loss. The United States and EU have developed various assessment methods to analyze coastal eutrophication. However, there is no integrated analysis for coastal eutrophication in Taiwan. This study adopted and modified the methods used in other countries to evaluate coastal eutrophication and compared the advantages and disadvantages among them. In addition, the concentration of chlorophyll was discussed by examining MODIS monthly ocean color satellite images to investigate the susceptibility to eutrophication in Taiwan.
The assessment results showed that high susceptibility to eutrophication occurs mostly on the southwestern estuaries, including Beigang River, Puzih River, Bajhang River, Jishuei River, Zengwun River, Erren River, Agongdian River, Gaoping River, and Donggang River. Land-based pollutants are more likely to accumulate at estuaries that are highly susceptible to eutrophication. In addition, higher nutrient levels (Ni > 40) were found at Agongdian River, followed by Yenshui River, Fongshan River, Jhonggang River, and Houlong River. Higher nutrient levels indicated higher input of nutrients at these estuaries. For coastal waters beyond the estuaries, Dapeng Bay (Ni = 14.37) and Gaoping River (Ni = 9.69) had the highest nutrient levels. Regarding the assessment of coastal eutrophication, the coastal area of Gaoping River exhibited higher levels of orthophosphate (DIP > 0.05 mg/L) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN > 0.5 mg/L). Chlorophyll a, among other water quality indices, was also higher in the coastal area of Dapeng Bay (Chl-a = 15.6 μg/L), indicating symptoms of eutrophication. Moreover, the results of the comprehensive evaluation method showed low EQRS (< 0.21) for the coastal areas beyond Erren estuary, Kao-Ping estuary, and Dapeng Bay. Analysis of chlorophyll a using MODIS images showed that the concentration of chlorophyll a was higher (Chl-a > 5 μg/L) in estuaries of Jhuoshuei River, Puzih River, and Zengwun River, and coastal waters beyond these estuaries, implying high possibility of nutrient accumulation.
Eutrophication is an environmental issue that draws more and more attention worldwide. Taiwan should establish integrated management plans to mitigate the problems of coastal eutrophication. The results in this study can serve as references for competent authorities to prevent coastal pollution as well as to reduce input of nutrients. Limited resources should be utilized for managing coastal waters exhibiting higher degree of eutrophication.
論文目次 中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
謝誌 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第壹章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景及動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究架構及流程圖 4
第貳章 近岸海域及河口優養之文獻回顧 7
2.1 海域環境優養污染問題危害探討 7
2.1.1 海域之環境系統概念 8
2.1.2 海洋環境與海域優養 10
2.1.3 海域與河川湖泊優養之異同 10
2.1.4 海域優養之影響 13
2.2 國際及區域性海域環境優養問題及立法趨勢 15
2.2.1 美國-海洋法案 (Ocean Act) 16
2.2.2 歐盟-水體架構指令 (Water Framework Directive, WFD) 19
2.2.3 東北大西洋-奧斯陸巴黎公約 (OSPAR Convention) 25
2.2.4 波羅的海-赫爾辛基公約 (Helsinki convention, HELCOM) 29
2.3 美國與歐盟海域優養之評估策略 32
2.3.1 美國近岸優養管理策略 34
2.3.2 OSPAR公約優養管理評估 38
2.3.3 HELCOM公約優養管理 41
2.4 台灣海域優養現況 44
2.4.1 台灣海域監測管理之現況 45
2.4.2 海域優養評估現況 49
第叁章 研究方法 51
3.1 主要河口優養潛勢分析 (susceptibility analysis) 51
3.2 化學性指標分析 56
3.2.1 美國環保署國家海岸評估水質指數(NCA Water Quality Index) 58
3.2.2 中國國家環境監測中心之營養鹽指數(Nutrient Index) 59
3.2.3 東北大西洋奧斯陸巴黎公約之優養策略(OSPAR COMPP) 59
3.3 衛星影像優養潛勢評估分析 61
3.4 研究限制 65
第肆章 結果與討論 67
4.1 主要河口優養潛勢分析 67
4.2 化學性指標分析 70
4.2.1 國家海岸評估水質指數 (NCA Water Quality Index) 70
4.2.2 營養鹽指數 (Nutrient Index, Ni) 74
4.2.3 奧斯陸巴黎公約優養指數評估 (OSPAR COMPP) 76
4.3 衛星影像優養潛勢評估分析 82
4.4 優養潛勢綜合評估 88
4.4.1 美國優養管理策略(ASSETS)與OSPAR COMPP 之比較評析 89
4.4.2 沖刷潛勢與營養鹽指數綜合評估 90
4.4.3 營養鹽指數與衛星影像之綜合評估 92
4.4.4 國家海岸評估水質指標與OSPAR COMPP之綜合評估 94
4.4.5 小結 95
第伍章 我國海域優養未來可能之評估管理策略 99
5.1 海域水體優養化之管理防治策略 99
5.1.1 控制外源性營養物質之輸入 100
5.1.2 降低內源性營養物質之負荷 101
5.1.3 去除廢污水中的營養鹽等物質 102
5.1.4 綜合管理防治策略 103
5.2 國外海域優養化管理策略—以芬蘭為例 104
第陸章 結論與建議 107
6.1 結論 107
6.2 建議 109
參考文獻 114
中文 114
英文 116
自述 124
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