||Hybrid Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Approach to R&D Project Selection: A Case in Flexible Electronic Equipment Development
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)(on the job class)
Management of R & D
Multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM)
Modified Delphi Method (MDM)
Analytic Network Process (ANP)
Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL)
受到全球化的衝擊，企業必須投入大量資源進行研發作業以強化其競爭能力，然而投入資金進行研發並不一定保證成功，因之選擇有價值的研發方案成為組織營運一項重要的課題；在研發提案的評選上，研究者多著重於數量化經濟價值的評估或以複雜的評選準則來評判研發提案的良莠。本篇論文使用一特定模式，在提案初期即予以評估以減少資源的浪費。此模式乃架構於產品或服務的差異化上，其為管理大師波特(Porter)所提之三項組織競爭策略之一。此架構乃針對市場的需求，以與競爭對手具差異化的解決方法，來追求最大化組織效益。此論文運用系統化的多準則決策方法，包括修正式德菲法(Modified Delphi Method, MDM)、決策實驗室法(Decision making trial and evaluation laboratory, DEMATEL)與網路層級分析法(Analytic Network Process, ANP)等，整合NSDB架構，建構一系統化研發提案評選的模式。其分析了研發提案者對組織管理階層所訂定之評選準則的認知程度，從對準則的權重分析結果來看，本案例之非營利事業組織研發提案者能高度的認知管理階層所訂定之評選準則。運用前述多準則評估方法，本論文就需求(Need)、解決方法(Solution)、差異化(Differentiation)、效益(Benefit)等構面，釐訂了16項評選準則及其各自的權重數據，並據以評估一項有關軟性電子設備開發整合計畫的五項研發提案，其分析結果與由評審委員所評選的結果一致。
As global competition continues to intensify, significant numbers of organizations are investing large amounts of resources into R & D as they seek to gain competitive advantage. Yet, spending money on R&D does not guarantee success. Choosing valuable project(s) is very important for an organization to be sustainable operation. Regarding project selection, researchers focus on either numerically economic benefit or complicated criteria to challenge proposed project(s). This paper uses a model to evaluate proposed project at early stage based on the idea of product/service differentiation which is one of the three winning competitive positioning strategies for an organization suggested by Porter (1980). A framework based on the differentiation of competitive strategy is created by providing a solution (S) to market need (N), and by maximizing its benefits (B) through differentiating (D) with competitors. A systematic MCDM approach, including MDM, DEMATEL, and ANP was held and accompanied with NSDB framework to form a systematic project(s) selection model. This model could enhance the efficiency of selecting R&D project(s) and access the consistency between manager’s and planner’s view of point regarding the selection criteria of R&D project(s). A case study regarding equipment development about an emerging industry of flexible electronics has been carried out to exam the above mentioned MCDM model.
By way of the method combined ANP with DEMATEL, verifying the awareness to the R&D selection rule for those planners who want to shoot for the resource from stakeholders has been proved significantly. In accordance with the result, the priority/weights shows little bias between NPM and NPP that implies a planner working in a non-profit organization has highly awareness to the R&D selection rule.
Sixteen weighted criteria accompanied with four corresponding aspects, need, solution, differentiation and benefit, including (1)new market potential (NMP), (2)the potential size of market (PSM), (3)time to market (TTM), (4)urgent customer requirement (UCR), (5)ability to meet likely future regulations (MFR), (6)technical resource availability (TRA), (7)opportunity of technical success (OTS), (8)contents of technical plan (CTP), (9)advancement of technology (AOT), (10)innovation of technology (IOT), (11)key of technology (KOT), (12)patent Portfolios (PP), (13)potential return on investment (PROI), (14)aid the organization in competing in the market (AOC), (15)improvement on QESIS (QESIS), and (16)opportunity of market success (OMS) has been selected and weighted by MDM and ANP combined with DEMATEL, and also applied to evaluate a new program, including five R&D proposals in the field of flexible electronic (FE) industry equipments. The analyzed result is consistent to the real case conducted by evaluation committee.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.2 Research Motivation. 2
1.3 Research Objectives. 4
1.4 Research Significance. 4
1.5 Research Procedure. 7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Research & Development (R&D). 9
2.2 Flexible Electronic Equipment. 11
2.3 Selection Criteria of R&D 14
2.4 Pre-Selected Criteria for NSDB. 23
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 27
3.1 Modified Delphi Method (MDM). 28
3.2 Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL). 32
3.3 Analytic Network Process (ANP). 36
3.3.1 Paired Comparisons. 38
3.3.2 Networks, Dependence and Feedback. 41
3.4 A Hybrid MCDM Model. 45
3.5 Case Study: R&D project for Equipments of Flexible Electronic Industry. 48
3.5.1 Project. 48
3.4.2 Pre-Selected Criteria. 49
3.4.3 ANP Structure. 51
3.4.4 Selection of Respondents. 54
3.4.5 Questionnaire Design. 58
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 59
4.1 Modified Delphi Method (MDM)- Criteria Selection.. 59
4.2 DEMATEL- Data for the Influence of Element Relationship. 64
4.3 ANP combined with DEMATEL- Data collection and Analysis. 75
4.4 Proposal Evaluation. 89
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 92
5.1 Conclusion. 92
5.2 Academic Implication. 94
5.3 Managerial Implication. 96
5.4 Research limitation. 97
5.5 Future research recommendation. 97
Appendix 1: Criteria of Reviewed Literature 104
Appendix 2: Pre-selected Criteria Combined with Proposed Criteria by Experts 109
Appendix 3: DEMATEL Survey- Influence Matrix 113
Appendix 4: ANP- Pairwise Comparison: Aspect & Criteria 121
Appendix 5: ANP- Pairwise Comparison: Alternatives 137
Appendix 6: Limited supermatrix 141
Appendix 7: Questionnaire 144
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