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系統識別號 U0026-2806201010573400
論文名稱(中文) 聖嬰現象對高空短暫發光現象(淘氣精靈)與閃電活動之影響
論文名稱(英文) The Impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Transient Luminous Event (Elve) and Lightning Activities
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 太空天文與電漿科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Assistant, Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sciences(ISAPS)
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 吳彥蓉
研究生(英文) Yen-Jung Wu
學號 la697104
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 67頁
口試委員 口試委員-許晃雄
指導教授-陳炳志
指導教授-許瑞榮
中文關鍵字 聖嬰南方震盪  高空大氣閃電影像儀  高空短暫發光現象  淘氣精靈  閃電  閃電影像偵測儀  南方震盪指數  渥克環流 
英文關鍵字 El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO)  Imager of Sprite and Upper  Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)  Transient Luminous Events (TLEs)  Elve  Lightning  Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)  Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)  Walker circulation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 福衛二號高空大氣閃電影像儀(ISUAL)是全球第一個從太空中觀測高空短暫發光現象的衛星酬載。經過五年觀測已累積足夠的資料進行大氣放電現象的全球分佈時間序列之研究,並且第一次有機會以觀測資料探索大氣放電現象與聖嬰南方震盪之間的關係。為了確保ISUAL觀測資料未受儀器衰減影響,本論文分析了ISUAL光譜光度計的長期衰減變化,確認在資料時間範圍內的事件偵測率不受儀器調整與衰減兩項因素的影響。

以閃電影像偵測儀(LIS)所觀測的閃電、ISUAL所觀測的閃電與淘氣精靈(Elve)等三種不同閃電能量之大氣放電現象資料為樣本。透過建構不同季節、不同放電資料的事件密度以進行空間與時序分析。結果顯示自2004年6月起五年間全球ISUAL閃電與LIS閃電活動變化趨勢一致,且維持穩定均值,但是淘氣精靈發生率有逐年增加的趨勢。五年任務期間共經歷兩次反聖嬰期以及兩次聖嬰期,以標準化距平對三種大氣放電資料進行太平洋區域聖嬰南方震盪冷、暖時期趨勢探討,我們發現淘氣精靈的變化同時具有代表地球環境的太平洋馬蹄形區域以及閃電活動的大溪地附近區域之特徵。

分析大氣放電現象與聖嬰南方震盪指數的時間相關性找出之聖嬰南方震盪正負強反應區域,分別為換日線赤道區及大溪地區域。採用與南方震盪指數類似之定義,對不同放電現象之事件發生率進行計算,發現所得到的變化曲線與南方震盪指數、Niño 3.4指標皆有高度時間相關性。顯示閃電、淘氣精靈在太平洋區域的變化確實受到聖嬰南方震盪的影響,並且呈現顯著的關連性。
英文摘要 Imager of Sprite and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite is the first space-borne scientific payload dedicated to the long-term survey of the transient luminous events (TLEs). To monitor the performance change of the ISUAL sensors, the instrumental degradation and the effective detection efficiency is carefully investigated by the routine calibration observations. The chronic variation of TLE event rates show no notable trend between the annual cycles; this result implies that the detection efficiency of ISUAL has maintained at a constant level in the first 5 years of operation and no correction to the current statistics is necessary.

We analyze 3 datasets of atmospheric discharge observations from the space, ISUAL-recorded elve, lightning, and LIS-recorded lightning, covering the average energies from high to low respectively. The ISUAL lightning and the LIS lightning rates show similar trend and remain nearly constant from June 2004 to the present, while the seasonal rates of elve increase gradually. Two El Niño events and two La Niña events have experienced in the past 5 years. A standardized anomaly analysis is adapted to identify the elves and lightning variability in the warm and cold phases of ENSO, which is characterized by the South Oscillation Index. The anomaly elve distributions during these episodes are consistent with the Pacific horseshoe pattern and the ENSO lightning characteristics in the Tahiti region.

The correlation between the atmospheric discharges and the major indices that scientist commonly use to identify ENSO, such as Southern Oscillation Index and Niño 3.4 Oceanic Niño Index, is discussed. The equatorial dateline and the Tahiti regions are chosen as a comparative areas for the elve and lightning as they response to the ENSO episodes. The tight correlation between the atmospheric discharges and ENSO interannual variability provides the concrete evidence that the electricity activity at upper atmosphere can be directly affected by the variation of the ocean and atmosphere conditions.
論文目次 摘 要 i
Abstract ii
誌 謝 iii
目 錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
1. 第一章 緒論 1
1.1. 高空短暫發光現象 1
1.1.1. 紅色精靈與精靈暈盤 2
1.1.2. 淘氣精靈 4
1.1.3. 巨大噴流與藍色噴流 5
1.1.4. 高空短暫發光現象全球分佈 8
1.2. 閃電 9
1.2.1. 積雨雲的起電過程與閃電形成之天氣條件 9
1.2.2. 閃電分類 11
1.3. 聖嬰南方震盪 13
2. 第二章 科學資料來源與處理方法 15
2.1. 福爾摩沙衛星二號 15
2.1.1. 高空大氣閃電影像儀 16
2.1.2. 高空短暫發光現象與閃電事件資料處理 20
2.2. 熱帶降水偵測任務衛星 23
2.2.1. 閃電影像偵測儀 24
2.3. 地球環境資料與季節定義 26
3. 第三章 光譜光度儀衰減分析 28
4. 第四章 淘氣精靈及閃電事件發生率分析 36
4.1. 不同能量大氣放電現象之時序分析 36
4.2. ENSO冷、暖時期之中太平洋閃電與淘氣精靈發生率分析 40
5. 第五章 淘氣精靈、閃電與聖嬰南方震盪之相關性分析 43
5.1. LIS閃電、ISUAL閃電及淘氣精靈之冷、暖時期全球分佈 43
5.2. 標準化距平之定義與應用 45
5.3. ENSO冷、暖時期大氣放電現象之標準化距平分析 47
5.4. 淘氣精靈及閃電事件與南方震盪指數相關性 52
5.5. 大氣放電現象於換日線赤道區與大溪地區域發生率比較 56
5.6. 換日線赤道區、大溪地區域與Niño3.4區大氣放電現象相關性 59
6. 第六章 結論與展望 61
7. 參考文獻 64
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