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系統識別號 U0026-2708201919224100
論文名稱(中文) 臺灣西南部二仁溪沉積剖面硫化鐵礦物學所揭露之多期成岩作用紀錄
論文名稱(英文) Multiple diagenetic processes as revealed by iron-sulfide mineralogy in sediments from the Erhjen-chi section, southwestern Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 鄭宇軒
研究生(英文) Yu-Hsuan Cheng
學號 l46051138
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 152頁
口試委員 指導教授-江威德
口試委員-楊懷仁
口試委員-陳燕華
口試委員-龔慧貞
中文關鍵字 硫複鐵礦  菱硫鐵礦  深埋成岩作用  電子背向散射  穿透式電子顯微鏡 
英文關鍵字 greigite  smythite  burial diagenesis  electron backscatter diffraction  transmission electron microscopy 
學科別分類
中文摘要 臺灣西南部二仁溪剖面由西向東至古亭坑斷層涵蓋崎頂層底部及古亭坑層泥岩,分布有磁黃鐵礦-磁鐵礦帶、硫複鐵礦帶和硫複鐵礦-磁鐵礦帶,本研究使用掃瞄式電子顯微鏡(SEM)、電子背向散射繞射(EBSD)及高解析度穿透式電子顯微鏡 (HRTEM) 技術分析其硫化鐵礦物,以瞭解彼等微組構及成份特徵,探討可能形成過程。
整體剖面沉積物基質均含有黃鐵礦細粒集合體,磁黃鐵礦僅出現於磁黃鐵礦-磁鐵礦帶,多為粒徑達數十微米之板狀晶體,且多呈現斷裂及部份氧化特徵,推測為碎屑源,僅於接近硫複鐵礦帶之處,見有尖板狀磁黃鐵礦,可能為成岩作用產物。硫複鐵礦帶和硫複鐵礦-磁鐵礦帶含有硫化鐵結核粒,依形態分為炭屑(植物化石)、生痕充填(生痕化石)與一般(準球狀)結核粒,硫複鐵礦為彼等主要組成,但硫複鐵礦-磁鐵礦帶於鄰近古亭坑斷層處,結核粒有黃鐵礦/白鐵礦化現象。炭屑及另二形態結核粒核心區塊分別由粒徑近百奈米之纖維狀和粒狀硫複鐵礦晶體集合體所構成,成份均符合硫Fe3S4,但EBSD訊號品質不足以辨識晶相;核心區塊外緣增生或再結晶緊密鑲嵌之較粗粒硫複鐵礦粒狀晶體,粒徑可達微米,可產生符合硫複鐵礦之EBSD繞射特徵。結核粒孔隙或外緣局部可見生長板狀晶簇,成份符合菱硫鐵礦(Fe9S11),且產生可鑑識為菱硫鐵礦之EBSD菊池帶。硫複鐵礦局部可與菱硫鐵礦微米晶體交錯生長,形成粒徑達數十微米之集合體。部分標本所含一般結核粒之鄰近基質和片狀矽酸鹽解理裂縫中,可見生長硫複鐵礦及菱硫鐵礦,結核粒內部之片狀矽酸鹽解理裂縫中,則另可見成份吻合四方硫鐵礦(FeS)之晶粒。
HRTEM影像及繞射分析顯示炭屑結核粒核心纖維狀硫複鐵礦由約略平行排列之長柱狀晶體所組成,寬約數十至近百奈米,長軸沿<100>延展長度可達微米,晶體具有高密度{111}面缺陷,呈現沿<111>方向延伸之繞射條紋列,暗示緊密排列層堆疊或鐵佔位變化,此缺陷特徵亦見於生痕和一般結核粒核心緊密鑲嵌、粒徑近百奈米之粒狀晶體;長柱狀晶體集合體外緣生長近微米硫複鐵礦晶體,呈現幾無缺陷之中心區塊,具有立方緊密排列結構{111}之0.57奈米週期性;邊緣區域則具有1.71奈米緊密排列層與繞射週期長度,此種特徵亦可見於生痕和一般結核粒外緣增生之微米晶體。硫複鐵礦<110>及<211>晶帶軸繞射圖分別可見l ≠ 4n之00l和k + l ≠ 4n之0kl尖晶石結構禁制繞射點,暗示缺乏四重螺旋及鑽石滑移對稱性。一般結核粒外部鄰近處之片狀矽酸鹽解理裂隙充填粒徑數百奈米硫複鐵礦粒狀與菱硫鐵礦板狀晶體,兩者交錯生長,形成長達數微米之集合體,約略平行解理;結核粒內部片狀矽酸鹽解理裂隙除了相似地夾有硫複鐵礦及菱硫鐵礦,電子繞射證實另含有四方硫鐵礦。菱硫鐵礦板狀晶體呈現1.14 奈米週期長度,符合菱硫鐵礦菱體晶格(003)繞射與六方緊密排列層週期性位移特徵,局部可見與單一或數個符合硫複鐵礦0.57奈米層狀結構單元交錯,呈現l = 3n強度瀰散奇數階和明亮銳利偶數階00l繞射點。此外,結核粒孔隙板狀晶體亦有少見一例呈現磁黃鐵礦3.2C結構繞射特徵。
古亭坑層硫化鐵結核粒中之細粒硫複鐵礦晶體之微組構和繞射特徵與臺灣西南海域沉積物早成岩硫複鐵礦相似,同樣具有奈米粒徑及富含{111}缺陷,且難以產生可資鑑定晶相之EBSD訊號;後期硫複鐵礦粒徑可達微米,具有相對低密度{111}缺陷和局部準菱硫鐵礦過渡性結構,可局部產生符合硫複鐵礦之EBSD菊池帶繞射特徵,且交錯或接續生長菱硫鐵礦板狀晶體,推測為深埋成岩作用產物。
英文摘要 Electron microscopy techniques were used to determine compositional and structural properties and formation processes of iron-sulfide minerals in the Erhjen-chi section (Plio-Pleistocene Chiting Formation and Gutinkeng Mudstone), SW Taiwan. Greigite occurred as a main constituent of millimeter- to centimeter-sized plant-fossil, ichnofossil, and semi-spherical iron-sulfide nodules but was not observed in the sediment matrix of all studied samples. These nodules contained early-formed aggregates of granular or <100>-elongated nanocrystals of greigite (~Fe3S4) about 100 nm in size with the aggregates surrounded and nodule cavities partially filled by coarser grained greigite crystals up to 1 μm in size, locally intergrown with platy crystals with a composition of smythite (~Fe9S11). Iron-sulfide nodules were partially pyritized and marcasitized in the vicinity of the Gutingkeng Fault. HRTEM analyses showed that the greigite nanocrystals invariably exhibited a high density of {111} planar defects and intense diffraction streaks parallel to the greigite <111> directions, implying close packed layers irregularly interrupted by stacking mistakes and/or changes of iron occupancy. The coarser grained crystals of greigite were characterized by a defect-free domain epitaxially or topotaxially rimmed by areas showing layers with a 1.71-nm periodicity that might be hypothesized to include interstratified greigite-like 0.57 nm and smythite-like 1.14 nm units in the close packed layer sequence. Electron diffraction patterns of the platy crystals exhibited a 1.14-nm periodicity along the c* direction, consistent with the rhombohedral lattice of smythite with c = 3.42 nm. Local interstratification of smythite with single or multiple greigite-like 0.57 nm layers was observed as well. These results demonstrated two generations of greigite with distinct microstructures and late formation of smythite with complex transitional structures. The greigite-dominated nodules were largely modified by recrystallization of pre-existing early-diagenetic greigite and smythite neoformation.
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 vii
圖目錄 xii
表目錄 xv
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 硫複鐵礦 5
1.2 菱硫鐵礦 8
1.3 沉積物中磁黃鐵礦之特徵 13
1.4 研究目的 14
第二章 地質背景與樣本採集 15
2.1 地質背景 15
2.1.1 古亭坑層與崎頂層 16
2.1.2 泥火山特徵 19
2.2 台灣西南部磁性礦物研究 20
2.3 樣本採集 23
第三章 標本描述及研究方法 26
3.1 標本描述 26
3.2 實驗流程 33
3.3 樣本製備 35
3.4 X光粉末繞射 37
3.5 掃描式電子顯微鏡分析 37
3.5.1 背向散射電子影像(backscattered electron imaging, BEI) 37
3.5.2 X光能量分散光譜(energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, EDS) 37
3.5.3 電子背向散射繞射(electron backscatter diffraction, EBSD) 38
3.6 穿透式電子顯微鏡分析 39
3.6.1 前瞻聚焦離子束系統試片製備 39
3.6.2 影像與電子繞射圖 39
第四章 結果 44
4.1 硫化鐵結核產狀與分類 44
4.2 結核X光繞射礦物組成 47
4.3 掃描式電子顯微鏡分析 52
4.3.1 晶相特徵 52
4.3.2 硫化鐵結核組織 53
4.3.3 基質硫化鐵礦物產狀 72
4.3.4 沉積碎屑礦物特徵 78
4.3.5 其他自生礦物特徵 81
4.3.6 電子顯微岩象綜整 86
4.4 穿透式電子顯微鏡分析 88
4.4.1 一般型結核 88
4.4.2 植物炭屑結核 95
4.4.3 生痕結核 101
4.4.4 片狀矽酸鹽解理裂隙硫化鐵礦物 105
4.4.5 超微組構特徵綜整 111
第五章 討論 112
5.1 磁黃鐵礦特徵與來源 112
5.2 成岩硫複鐵礦特徵 114
5.3 微米硫複鐵礦特徵與獨特性 115
5.4 結核硫複鐵礦—菱硫鐵礦多期成岩生成證據與模式 116
5.5 礦物區域性分布之隱示 119
5.6 硫複鐵礦與菱硫鐵礦成岩微組構變化之意義 121
第六章 結論 125
英文參考文獻 126
中文參考文獻 141
附錄一、各類型硫化鐵礦物定量光譜 144
附錄二、磁黃鐵礦定量結果 145
附錄三、硫複鐵礦定量結果 146
附錄四、菱硫鐵礦定量結果 149
附錄五、小滾水斷層富砷結核定量結果 152
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