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系統識別號 U0026-2708201711360300
論文名稱(中文) 東亞國家中不同年齡層的老化憂慮之差異
論文名稱(英文) Age Differences in Worries about Aging Among East Asian Countries
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 老年學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Gerontology
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 鄭翔如
研究生(英文) Hsiang-Ju Cheng
學號 TC6041065
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 61頁
口試委員 口試委員-林桑伊
口試委員-范聖育
指導教授-翁慧卿
中文關鍵字 年齡  性別差異  老化憂慮 
英文關鍵字 age  sex difference  worries about aging 
學科別分類
中文摘要 個人經驗和社會刻板印象的影響老化可能會影響人們對於未來的憂慮。根據推估,在2025年時,全球的老年人口將會達到二十億,這種高齡人口增加的現象不論是對個人或是社會都是一大挑戰。有越來越多的人擔心老化後的未來,「老化憂慮」對人們而言,不再只是一個想法,而是真實的生活,老化憂慮不只發生在老年人身上,年輕人或中年人同樣會面臨此一問題。過去的文獻顯示,在一些國家中,不同的性別與年齡對此呈現出不同的考量與憂慮層面,亦有些文獻討論跨國的比較,但都還不夠完整,而且對於影響老化憂慮的因子探討仍不夠清楚。在此研究中,我們試著去解釋東亞國家中個人因子與老化憂慮相關的情形,同時藉著年齡分組探討不同年齡和老化憂慮的關聯,並以各國家的社會相關指標做為結果討論之輔助,期能因了解老化憂慮而能更鑑別出年長者需求和做為老化社會政策制定之參考。
本研究由2010~2012年東亞社會調查資料庫(EASS)中的受試者(涵蓋中國、台灣、日本、南韓)為研究對象,共收錄受試者中國3802位、台灣2134位、日本2196位、南韓1526位,分析年齡、性別、教育、都市化、家庭人數、工作、婚姻和生活環境機能等個人因子和老化憂慮的相關性。此外,將受試者依年齡分成年輕(20-40歲)、中年(41-64歲)、老年(65歲以上)三組,以迴歸分析法加以探討個人因子和老化憂慮的相關聯性。
研究結果顯示,東亞四國中以日本的老化憂慮數值最高。不同國家中,不同的年齡層其老化憂慮數值也存在不同的差異:1.以各年齡的差異而言,在日本,各年齡層的老化憂慮數值並無顯著差異;在台灣,年輕族群和中年族群的老化憂慮數值較老年族群高;在中國,中年族群的老化憂慮數值較年輕族群高;在南韓,老年人的老化憂慮數值則比年輕與中年族群高。2.在其他因子部分,四個國家中的女性老化憂慮指數皆高於男性,具有較良好的自評身心健康者則老化憂慮指數較低,其餘因子則隨著不同國家而有不同的相關聯性,然而,生活機能與友善環境兩項在大部分的年齡層與國家中皆無顯著相關性。
在東亞四個國家中,我們可以發現老化憂慮並不是老年人的專利,而是各年齡族群都會面臨的問題,而其中的差異則可能會受到不同國情的影響,但各國結果上也具有一致性:具有良好的自評健康者則具有較低的老化憂慮。因此,如何建構一個全面的健康促進系統來提供老年人所需求的健康服務,將是一個老化社會中正確且迫切的方向。
英文摘要 Background
Aging may intensify worries about the future according to personal experience and social stereotypes. The elderly population may be up to two billion on 2025 and this global aging phenomenon will bring a lot of challenges from the individual to social level. More and more people worried about the future when their getting old. Worries about aging occurred not only in elderly but also in younger adults. In previous studies, different genders and ages showed different concerns. Cross-national differences were found, but not completely. Factors related to worries about aging were still not clear enough and how to realize this issue is important.

Aim
In this study, we tried to examine the variables related to worries about aging and that in different ages and genders in the Eastern Asia. To recognize the worries about aging will be useful in identifying senior needs and will help determine policies on the aging society.

Method
This study was a cross-sectional study. For the individual level, data was drawn from the subjective dataset of the East Asian Social Survey (EASS) collected from 2010 to 2012. Analyses of variance will be used to compare the three generations (young: 20-40 years old, middle: 41-64 years old, and old: ≧ 65 years old). In order to identify the predictors of worry about ageing, regression analyses were performed.

Results
In this study, there were 3802 participants in China (mean age of 47.61 years old) and 2134 participants in Taiwan (mean age of 47.63 years old), 2496 participants in Japan (mean age of 53.70 years old) and 1526 participants in South Korea (mean age of 45.90 years old). We divided these participants to three age groups: young (20-40 years old), middle (21-64 years old), and old (≧ 65 years old) in every country.
Comparison to four countries, score of worries about aging was the highest in Japan (mean=3.72). Among four countries, different worries about aging score were different in different age groups. In Japan, though young age group had the highest worries score (mean=3.76), there were no significance worries about aging in different ages. In Taiwan, young and middle age group had higher worries about aging than elderly (young age mean=3.46, middle age mean=3.35, old age mean=2.08). In South Korea, old age group had the highest worries about aging (mean=3.42) than young and middle age group. In China, the worries about aging score was higher in middle age group (mean=3.50) than in young age group (mean=3.30).
Among four countries, women all had higher worries about aging than men. In Japan and China, the old age group ≧ 65 years was younger elderly had more worries about aging. But older younger with more worries about aging occurred in 20-40 years old group in China. More worries about aging occurred in less number of children per family in 41-64 years old group in Japan and China. In all countries, higher self-reported physical and mental health showed less worries about aging in different age groups.
Education was a significant factor in South Korea, Taiwan, and China. Marital status was a significant factor in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The number of children per family was an only significant factor in Japan and China. Urbanization and accessibility to life necessities were not significant factors in every country. Besides, Life expectancy, LG GDP, health expenditure, governance, social capital, and health were the highest in Japan than other countries.

Conclusion
The elderly was not absolute the group having the highest worries about aging in East Asia societies, which related to multiple factors. Overall, it showed that less worries about aging was related to better self-health identification. To establish a holistic health promotion system for seniors with the services they need will be a pressing and correct direction in an aging society.
論文目次 Chinese Abstract I
English Abstract III
Acknowledgement VI
List of Tables VIII
List of Figuers IX
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Aims of the Study 4
1.3 Significance of the Study 4
Chapter 2 Literature Review 6
2.1 Worries about Aging 6
2.2 Social Capital 8
Chapter 3 Methodology 12
3.1 Study Design 12
3.2 Data source and Variable explanation 13
Chapter 4 Results 23
4.1 Descriptive statistics 23
4.2 Comparison results of worries about aging among four countries 25
4.3 Summary of this study’s main results 40
Chapter 5 Discussion, Limitation and Directions for Future Research 43
5.1 Main findings 43
5.2 Limitations and directions for future research 52
Chapter 6 Conclusion 53
Reference 54
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