進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-2708201218223300
論文名稱(中文) 物理性的斷詞線索對一般大學生閱讀效率的影響:一個眼球軌跡追蹤的研究
論文名稱(英文) Effect of Word Segmentation on the Reading Efficiency of Normal College Students: Evidence from Eye Movements
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 心理學系認知科學碩士班
系所名稱(英) MS in Cognitive Science
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 林仁一
研究生(英文) Ren-Yi Lin
學號 U76971073
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 65頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳振宇
口試委員-陳欣進
口試委員-成戎珠
中文關鍵字 眼動  斷詞  中文閱讀 
英文關鍵字 eye movement  Chinese reading  word segmentation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究探討經過十五天的斷詞閱讀訓練,具有斷詞線索的句子是否有對於一般大學生的閱讀速度與眼動軌跡有所影響?兩種不同的斷詞標記方式(詞間空格與紅色框線)對於一般大學生的閱讀速度與眼動軌跡是否會有不同的影響?本研究共有兩個實驗,研究對象都是一般大學生。實驗一,共有26個受試者,隨機分派至詞間空格組與無詞間空格組,詞間空格組學生每日閱讀100句有詞間空格的中文句子,無詞間空格組學生學生每日閱讀100句無空格的中文句子,並於第1、5、8、11、15日,收集眼動資料進行分析。實驗二,正式實驗前,先進行五項工作記憶測驗,依據工作記憶測驗表現,分成高低工作記憶組,所有受試者在第1、8、15日,閱讀125個一般句子與125個紅色框線斷詞的句子,並收集眼動資料分析,其餘12天,每日閱讀一篇紅色框線斷詞的文章。
研究結果發現,對於一般大學生而言,有斷詞標記材料一開始會干擾閱讀,具體表現為:凝視次數增加、閱讀時間增加、閱讀速度減緩。經過十五日的斷詞閱讀訓練,這樣的差異依舊存在。斷詞線索對一般大學生沒有幫助,甚至有干擾,是因為已經成熟的斷詞自動化作業被阻斷的緣故。
英文摘要 The purpose of the present study was to examine whether marking word boundaries with adding segmentation cue can influence Chinese college students’ reading speed and eye movement. There were two experiments in the study. In experiment 1, 26 college students were participated and randomly allocated to read word-spacd and unspacd Chinese sentences. The data of eye movement were collected and analyzed on 1st, 5th, 8th, 11th, 15th days. In experiment 2, all participants had 5 working memory tests and divided into low and high working memory groups. All participants read red frame and normal Chinese sentences and the data of eye movement were collected and analyzed on 1st, 8th, 15th. The results in the study suggest that reading sentences with word boundaries can not facilitate reading speed and interference reading processes for normal college students. The characteristics of reading sentences with word boundaries were to have more number of fixation and more total reading time, and slow down in reading speed. The word boundaries sentences may interfere the automatic word segmentation processes in a normal reader.
論文目次 目錄

第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究動機…………………………………………………………………1
1.2 閱讀與眼動控制…………………………………………………………2
1.3 中文閱讀以詞為基礎心理學證據………………………………………3
1.3.1 詞優效果…………………………………………………..…………3
1.3.2詞彙處理與注意力分布……………………………………...………4
1.3.3詞彙屬性對眼動模式的影響………………………………...………4
1.3.4字間空格與詞間空格 …………………………………………….…5
1.4 詞間空格在閱讀中的作用………………………………………………5
1.5 不同文字系統對詞間空格線索的研究…………………………………6
1.5.1 英文………………………………………………………………...…7
1.5.2 西班牙文………………………………………………………...……8
1.5.3 日文………………………………………………………………...…9
1.5.4 泰文 ……………………………………………………………...…10
1.6 中文詞間空格的研究……………………………………………………11
1.7 斷詞線索對中文閱讀可能的影響………………………………………13
1.7.1正向助益 …………………………………………………………….13
1.7.2負向干擾 …………………………………………………………….14
1.8 工作記憶與閱讀…………………………………………………………15

第二章 實驗一………………………………………………………………….…17
2.1實驗目的……………………………………………………………….…17
2.2受試者……………………………………………………………………17
2.3實驗設計…………………………………………………………………18
2.4實驗材料…………………………………………………………………18
2.5實驗儀器…………………………………………………………………20
2.6實驗程序…………………………………………………………………20
2.7資料選擇與分析…………………………………………………………21
2.8實驗結果…………………………………………………………………22
2.8.1 行為指標 ………………………………………………………… 22
2.8.2眼動指標--整句分析……………………………………………… 24
2.9小結………………………………………………………………………28

第三章 實驗二……………………………………………………………………30
3.1實驗目的…………………………………………………………………30
3.2受試者……………………………………………………………………30
3.3實驗設計…………………………………………………………………31
3.4實驗材料…………………………………………………………………31
3.4.1工作記憶測驗……………………………………………………….31
3.4.2 眼動實驗……………………………………………………………33
3.5實驗儀器…………………………………………………………………34
3.6實驗程序…………………………………………………………………35
3.6.1工作記憶測驗………………………………………………………35
3.6.2眼動實驗與閱讀訓練………………………………………………35
3.7資料選擇與分析…………………………………………………………36
3.8實驗結果…………………………………………………………………36
3.8.1行為指標………………………………….…………………………36
3.8.2眼動指標--整句分析…………………………………………….….39
3.8.3眼動指標--單詞分析………………………………………….…….47
3.9小結………………………………………………………………………54

第四章 綜合討論…………………………………………………………………55
4.1不同的閱讀排版方式對一般大學生的影響……………………………55
4.2研究的限制與未來的延伸………………………………………………57
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………..59


表次

表2-1 實驗材料分組平均字數及反應時間…………………………..………….18
表2-2 實驗一無空格組與詞間空格組的各項數據…………………..………….22
表3-1 兩組工作記憶各分測驗成績………………………………………..…….33
表3-2 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組反應時間……………………..…….36
表3-3 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的答題正確率………………..…….38
表3-4 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組平均凝視時間………..…………….39
表3-5 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的凝視次數…………..…………….41
表3-6 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的總閱讀時間……………..………..43
表3-7 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的平均眼動距離………..…………..44
表3-8 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的閱讀速度………………..………..46
表3-9 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的總凝視時間……………..………..47
表3-10 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的凝視次數……………..….……..49
表3-11 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的首次凝視時間………….………..50
表3-12 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的整體凝視時間…………………..51
表3-13 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的跳視率…………………………..53


圖次

圖2-1 實驗一閱讀材料範例………………………………………………….…..19
圖2-2 實驗一無詞間空格組與詞間空格組在反應時間上的表現…….…….…22
圖2-3 實驗一無空格組與詞間空格組在答題正確率上的表現………………..23
圖2-4 實驗一無詞間空格組與詞間空格組在平均凝視時間上的表現.…….…24
圖2-5 實驗一無空格組與詞間空格組在凝視次數上的表現…………………..25
圖2-6 實驗一詞間空格組與無詞間空格組在總閱讀時間上的表現…………..26
圖2-7 實驗一詞間空格組與無詞間空格組平均眼動距離的表現……………...27
圖2-8 實驗一詞間空格組與無詞間空格組閱讀速度的表現…………………...28
圖3-1 實驗二眼動實驗材料範例...…………………...………………………….34
圖3-2 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的反應時間……..……….………….37
圖3-3 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的答題正確率….……….…………..38
圖3-4 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的平均凝視時間...………………….40
圖3-5 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的凝視次數…..……………………..41
圖3-6 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的總閱讀時間……………………….43
圖3-7 實驗二不同工作記憶表現,兩組的平均眼動距離………………………44
圖3-8 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的閱讀速度…………………………46
圖3-9 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的總凝視時間………………………47
圖3-10 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的凝視次數…………………..……49
圖3-11 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的首次凝視時間……..…………....50
圖3-12 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的整體凝視時間………………..…52
圖3-13 實驗二不同工作記憶表現下,兩組的跳視率…………………………..53
參考文獻 參考文獻

(一)中文文獻:
中文詞知識庫小組(1999)。中文斷詞系統。檢索自 http://ckipsvr.iis.sinica.edu.tw/。
李承逸(2011)。不同中文輸入法使用者的認知和語言處理方式。
國立成功大學認知科學所碩士論文(未出版)。
沈德立、白學軍、臧傳麗、閏國利、馮本才、范曉紅(2010)。詞切分對初學者句子閱讀影響的眼動研究,心理學報,42,159-172。
周裕欽(2002)。不同類型的工作記憶與中文閱讀理解的相關研究,花蓮師院學報,14,123-142。
林昱成(2009)。詞間空格對國小正常及閱讀困難學生閱讀效率之影響。
國立成功大學認知科學所碩士論文(未出版)。
胡志偉(1989)。中文詞的辨識歷程。中華心理學刊,31,31-39。
洪敦明(2005)。漢語文本中安置詞間空格線索對於閱讀效率之影響。
國立中正大學心理系碩士論文(未出版)。
陳學志、楊立行(1994)。空間區隔對中文語句辨識之影響。中華心理學年會論文。
柯華葳、陳明蕾、廖家寧(2005)。詞頻、詞彙類型與眼球運動型態:來自篇章閱讀的證據,中華心理學刊,47,381-398。
張智君、劉志方、趙亞軍、季靖(2012)。漢語閱讀過程中詞切分的位置:
一項基于眼動隨動顯示技術的研究,心理學報,44,51-62。
楊憲明(1998)。中文詞間、詞內空格調整對閱讀的影響。臺南師院學報,31, 303-326。
鄭昭明(1981)。漢字認知的歷程。中華心理學刊,23,137-153。
鄭昭明(2006)。認知心理學—理論與實踐。修訂三版。台北:桂冠圖書。
劉英茂、葉重新、王聯慧、張迎桂(1974)。詞單位對閱讀效率的影響。中華心理學刊,16,25-32。
蔡介立、顏妙璇、汪勁安(2005)。眼睛移動測量及在中文閱讀研究之應用,應用心理研究,28,91-104。
鍾妮、顏乃欣(2005)。詞彙歧異性及引號對閱讀時間的影響。第四十四屆臺灣心理學年會論文。

(二)英文文獻
Bai, X., Yan, G., Liversedge, S. P., Zang, C., & Rayner, K.(2008). Reading spaced and unspaced Chinese text: evidence from eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34,1277–1287.
Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A. (1983). What your eyes do while your mind is reading. In K. Rayner (Ed.), Eye movements in reading: perceptual and language processes ,275-307. New York: Academic Press.
Chen, J.-Y. (2004). The effect of word spacing on the reading speeds of Chinese third graders and college students. Pa per presented the 10th Annual Conference on the Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing (AMLaP2004), September 16-18, Aix, France.
Egly, R., Driver, J., & Rafal, R. D. (1994). Shifting visual-attention between objects and locations: Evidence from normal and parietal lesion subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 161–177.
Engbert, R., Longtin, A., & Kliegl, R. (2002). A dynamical model of saccade generation in reading based on spatially distributed lexical processing.
Vision Research, 42,621–636.
Epelboim, J., Booth, J. R., & Steinman, R. M. (1994). Reading unspaced text: Implications for theories of reading eye movements. Vision Research, 34, 1735–1766.
Epelboim, J., Booth, J. R., & Steinman R. M. (1996). Much ado about nothing: The place of space in text. Vision Research, 36, 465–470.
Feng, G. (2006). Eye movements in Chinese reading. In P. Li, L. Tan, E. Bates & O.J.L. Tzeng (Eds.), Handbook for East Asian Psycholinguistics: Vol. 1. London: Cambridge.
Hsu, S.-H., & Huang, K.-C. (2000). Interword spacing in Chinese text layout. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 355–365.
Inhoff, A. W., Liu, W., Wang, J., & Fu, D. J. (1997). Use of spatial information during the reading of Chinese text. In D.L. Peng, H. Shu, & H.C. Chen (Eds.), Cognitive research on Chinese language ,296−329. Jinan, China: Shan Dong Educational Publishing.
Inhoff, A. W. & Radach, R. (1998) Definition and computation of oculomotor measures in the study of cognitive processes. In: Eye guidance in reading and scene perception, ed. G. Underwood. Elsevier. 1–28
Just, M.A.,Carpenter, P.A.(1992).A Capacity theory of comprehension: Individual difference in working memory. Psychological review,99(1),122-149.
Kajii, N., Nazir, T.A., & Osaka, N. (2001). Eye movement control in reading unspaced text: The case of Japanese script. Vision Research,
41, 2503–2510
Kohsom, C., & Gobet, F. (1997). Adding spaces to Thai and English: Effects on reading. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, 19, 388–393.
Kambe, N. (1986). Eye movements and process in reading. National Institute of Japanese Language Report, 85, 29–66 in Japanese.
Li, X. S., & Logan, G. (2008). Object–based attention in Chinese readers of Chinese words: Beyond Gestalt principles. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 945–949.
Li, X.S., Rayner, K., & Cave, K. (2009). On the segmentation of Chinese words during reading. Cognitive Psychology, 58, 525-552.
Liversedge, S. P., & Findlay, J. M. (2000). Saccadic eye movements and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4,6−14.
Malt, B.C., & Seamon, J. G. (1978). Peripheral and cognitive components of eye guidance in filled-space reading. Perception & Psychophysics, 23, 399–402.
Nuthmann, A. (2005). The “Where” and “When” of Eye Fixations in Reading. Unpublished Doctorial Dissertation, University of Potsdam.
Nuthmann, A., & Engbert, R. (2009). Mindless reading revisited: An analysis based on the SWIFT model of eye-movement control. Vision Research, 49, 322–336.
O'Regan, J. K., & Jacobs, A. M. (1992). Optimal viewing position effect in word recognition: a challenge to a current theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 185-197.
Perea, M. & Acha, I. (2009). Space information is important for reading. Vision Reaserch, 49, 1994–2000.
Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (1982). Eye movement control in reading: The role of word boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human
Perception and Performance, 8, 817–833.
Radach, R., & Kennedy, A. (2004). Theoretical perspectives on eye movements in reading. Past controversies, current deficits and an agenda for future research. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 16, 3–26.
Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 372–422.
Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1457–1506.
Rayner, K., Fischer, M. H., & Pollatsek, A. (1998). Unspaced text interferes with both word identification and eye movement control. Vision Research, 38, 1129–1144.
Rayner, K., Li, X. S., Juhasz, B. J. & Yan, G. (2005). The effect of word predictability on the eye movements of Chinese readers. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 1089–1093.
Rayner, K., Li, X., & Pollatsek, A. (2007). Extending the E-Z Reader model to Chinese reading. Cognitive Science, 31,1021–1033.
Rayner, K., & Morris, RK (1992). Eye movement control in reading: Evidence against semantic preprocessing. Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Human Perception and Performance, 18, 163–172.
Reichle, E. D., Pollatsek, A., Fisher, D. L., & Rayner, K. (1998). Toward a model of eye movement control in reading. Psychological Review, 105, 125–157.
Reichle, E. D., Warren, T., & McConnell, K. (2009). Using E–Z reader to model effects of higher–level language processing on eye movements during reading. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 1–21.
Reilly, R. G., Radach, R., Corbic, D., & Luksaneeyanawin, S. (2005). Comparing reading in English and Thai: The role of spatial word unit segmentation in distributed processing and eye movement control. In Proceedings of the 13th European conference on eye movements, University of Bern, Switzerland.
Sainio, M., Hyönä, J., Bingushi, K., & Bertram, R. (2007). The role of interword spacing in reading Japanese: An eye movement study. Vision Research, 47, 2575–2584.
Tsai, C.-H. (2001). Word identification and eye movements in reading Chinese: A modeling approach. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Uarbana- Champaign.
Tsai, J. L., & McConkie, G. W. (2003). Where do Chinese readers send their eyes? In J. Hyönä, R. Radach, & H. Deubel (Eds.), The mind’s eye, cognitive and applied aspects of eye movement research. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Verhoeven, L., & Perfetti, C. A. (2008). Introduction. Advances in text comprehension:Model, process and development. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(3), 293-301.
White, S. J. (2008). Eye movement control during reading: effects of word frequency and orthographic familiarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 205–223.
Yan, G., Tian, H., Bai, X., & Rayner, K. (2006). The effect of word and character frequency on the eye movements of Chinese readers. British Journal of Psychology, 97,259–268.
Yan, M., Kliegl, R., Richter, E., Nuthmann, A., & Shu, H. (2010). Flexible saccade-target selection in Chinese reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 705–725.
Yang, H.-M., & McConkie, G. W. (1994). Word Perception and Eye Movements in Chinese Reading. Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign.
Yang, H.-M., & McConkie, G. W. (1999). Reading Chinese: Some basic eye movement characteristics. In J. Wang, A. W. Inhoff & H.-C. Chen. (Eds.), Reading Chinese script: A cognitive analysis (pp. 207-222). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Zang, C. L., Bai, X. J., Yan, G. L., & Liversedge, S. P. (2009). Eye movements and spaced Chinese text reading: Effect of reading skill. Poster presented at the 15th European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM). Southampton, UK.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2012-09-06起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2012-09-06起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw